Shutting Down the Power House of Cancer

Author: Daniel S, PhD; Last update: January 2021

Dear Friends,

Sometime ago, I promised to address this strategy, Shutting Down the Power House of Cancer, in more details (Ref.). Although I was looking forward to do this, it took some time to do this as I am working in parallel on three different directions, all connected. Those are the Blog (lately mainly communication in the background with people that need help), the Foundation (advancing both it’s major projects, one related to 2DG and the other related to pH in cancer), and starting up the Supplement Company (required to generate financial sustainability – the intention is to have the first products available sometimes in March 2020).

Today, I succeeded to find time to share some thoughts with you on strategies to fight cancer, with a specific focus on “Shutting Down the Power House of Cancer”, a metabolic approach to fight cancer. For some of the constant readers and friends on this website, some of the statements below may not be new. Yet, for the clarity and continuity of the discussion I need to make again some points. Thank you for your understanding.

Multiple Strategies to Fight Cancer, Chose One and Do It well

As we often discussed on this website, like any other problem, cancer can be viewed and addressed from various angles. In this way, looking for example through the lens of immune system, we could consider to address cancer as an immune system issue. In this case we will try to address all the mechanism that would help to enable or activate the immune system so that it can do it’s job and remove tumours. Another perspective we could consider, may be the hormonal perspective and try to fight caner by addressing relevant hormonal mechanisms. Or we could think of creating a pro-oxidant or an anti-oxidant pressure against cancer. Or we could decide to acidify cancer cells internally and suffocate them with their own “smoke” (Ref.). There are many ways we could fight cancer and these are just a few examples.

All these perspectives, or let’s call them strategies, are focused on attacking weak points of cancer. These are points, or mechanisms, on which cancer cells are heavily relying for their intensive activity. Now that we are aware of many such approaches, the major challenge is not anymore to find ways to beat cancer. Instead, it is about how to consolidate them in wise strategies, given a specific patient case, and how to apply them in order to increase the chance for their effectiveness.

Several such strategies that I intend to address in various posts to come are depicted in the figure below, indicated by the Blue-coloured hexagons. Aspects that I see them more as supportive and that would be addressed in parallel with the main strategies, are represented by Mustard-coloured hexagons. The strategies highlighted in the hexagons do not represent just one mechanism but multiple mechanisms clustered under the same umbrella. For example, “Inhibiting Cellular Building Blocks” includes anti cholesterol production too, previously discussed on this website. Mechanisms such as authophagy and angio-genesis are included in the “Deplete Nutrients” strategy. Nevertheless, with this figure, I did not intended to cover all possible strategies to fight cancer. Instead, my purpose was to create an overview of the major strategies I find relevant and I like to address in various posts to come.

The strategy we chose should be inline with the core treatment we decide to have. For example, if we go for Chemotherapy or Radiotherapy we may chose the pro-oxidant strategy as our Central strategy, and build our treatments around that, while if we go for angio-genesis inhibitor drugs, we may want to focus on the “Nutrient Depletion” strategy as top priority. 

The idea is to align/integrate our core treatments (often defined by oncologists) with a Central strategy that is likely to add more value that the core treatment alone. If there is no core treatment that we are planning to use, we will chose a Central strategy and try to make that as strong as possible including repurposed drugs and supplements (oral and intravenous when possible). Therefore, I think what is essential is the fight against cancer is to be consistent, coherent and have priorities. 

Integrating treatments in a coherent manner, to create cocktails, it is actually a trend in the oncology industry, also reflected by many of the recent clinical trails that now include two or more drugs. It is a trend generated by the need to improve the current treatment methods that have limited effectiveness.

Furthermore, I am constantly stressing the point about consistency, coherency, and priority because as cancer patients become more and more aware of the potential to fight cancer as a metabolic disease, there is a tendency for the patients to try inhibit all possible survival pathways at the same time. However, in reality this is difficult to achieve if not impossible because of two major reasons: first, it is likely we do not know all the surviving pathways of cancer; second, to get a fair chance for inhibition, each mechanism requires high dose of supplements/drugs, and that multiplied with the number of mechanisms to address leads too a very high number of capsules/tablets that would be impossible to take for most patients. As a result, patients trying to address all escape routes, will end up with a low dose of supplements/drugs for each target that may not hep much.

This is why, while in theory I would like to address everything at the same time, in reality it would help people to have a logical way to identify priorities as a function of the treatments given by their oncologist or a function of their choices. On this line, a better route in my view is to select one strategy that is relatively well understood scientifically, which would address a key mechanism in cancer, and address that seriously with higher doses of drugs and supplements. If there is space for more drugs and supplements, and the patient can take more tablets, we can include other strategies that work well together with our selected and Central strategy, as I will discuss below. 

Shutting Down the Power House of Cancer as a Central Strategy

One (metabolic) strategy that could be chosen as the high-priority strategy is to “Shut Down the Energy Engines” responsible for the energy production in cancer cells. In this case we just need to focus on “shutting down” the energy factories of the cell. Fortunately, this is not very complex as there are only two energy factories inside the cells:

  • respiration via mithocondria 
  • fermentation in the cytosol 

Once I would chose this strategy and mechanisms as a priority I prefer to address this strategy intensively, and place the inhibition of fatty acids, glutamine and glucose on a lower priority level. This is because, glucose, glutamine and fatty acids require functional engines (respiration and fermentation) in order to be converted in energy (ATP). So, for example if we shut down the respiration (the engine), there is no way glutamine (the fuel) will be converted in to energy.

(I should note here, that when we speak about “inhibition” or “shutting down” that will not happen literary, instead in general the activity of the specific target will be reduced only, but to a level that seriously affects cancer and not normal cells)

Indeed, various studies have demonstrated that concomitant inhibition of fermentation and respiration is lethal to most cancer types but not to normal cells. Here are just a few examples of those studies: 

  • Fermentation inhibitor Gossypol + Respiration inhibitor Phenformin: ALDH inhibition using gossypol, combined with mitochondrial complex I inhibition using phenformin, resulted in up to 80% depletion of ATP production in cancer cells, accompanied by significant growth regression of NSCLC tumors in the animal xenograft model, while normal cells do not have a loss of ATP production (Ref.)
  • Fermentation inhibitor + Respiration inhibitor Metformin: Dual Inhibition of the Lactate Transporters MCT1 and MCT4 Is Synthetic Lethal with Metformin due to NAD+ Depletion in Cancer Cells (Ref)
  • Fermentation inhibitor Diclofenac or Diflunisal + Respiration inhibitor Metformin: Combined Metabolic Targeting With Metformin and the NSAIDs Diflunisal and Diclofenac Induces Apoptosis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells (Ref.)
  • Fermentation inhibitor Diclofenac + Respiration inhibitor Metformin: Combined Modulation of Tumor Metabolism by Metformin and Diclofenac in Glioma (Ref.)
  • Fermentation inhibitor Oxamate+ Respiration inhibitor Phenformin: Synergistic Anti-Cancer Effect of Phenformin and Oxamate (Ref.)
  • Fermentation inhibitor Syrosingopine + Respiration inhibitor Metformin: Syrosingopine sensitizes cancer cells to killing by metformin (Ref.)
  • Fermentation inhibitor 2-Deoxyglucose + Respiration inhibitor Metformin: Induction of Apoptosis by a Combination of 2-Deoxyglucose and Metformin in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Targeting Cancer Cell Metabolism (Ref.)
  • Fermentation inhibitor 2-Deoxyglucose + Respiration inhibitor Metformin: Targeting cancer cell metabolism: the combination of metformin and 2-deoxyglucose induces p53-dependent apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. (Ref.)
  • Fermentation inhibitor Vitamin C + Respiration inhibitor Doxycycline: Vitamin C and Doxycycline: A synthetic lethal combination therapy targeting metabolic flexibility in cancer stem cells (CSCs) (Ref.)
  • Fermentation inhibitor Vitamin C + Respiration inhibitor Doxycycline and Azithromycin: Doxycycline, Azithromycin and Vitamin C (DAV): A potent combination therapy for targeting mitochondria and eradicating cancer stem cells (CSCs) (Ref.)
  • Fermentation inhibitor Vitamin C + Respiration inhibitor Berberine: Dodecyl-TPP Targets Mitochondria and Potently Eradicates Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs): Synergy With FDA-Approved Drugs and Natural Compounds (Vitamin C and Berberine) (Ref.)

Therefore, combining inhibitors of fermentation and of respiration is one of the very relevant strategies to fight cancer. An actionable plan along this strategy can be put in place relatively fast given that we (contributors to this website and myself) already collected long lists of accessible fermentation inhibitors and respiration inhibitors shared on this website at the following links:

In order to try addressing each of these two mechanisms effectively, I would consider addressing them with at least 2 or 3 inhibitors each, at the same time, using a dose that we expect it may be effective in reaching the goal. In my view, looking at drugs and supplements that can be take orally, we do have more effective tools to inhibit respiration compared to fermentation. This is why, I would use two/three respiration inhibitors and a larger number of fermentation inhibitors (including glucose transporter inhibitors). Below is a picture showing a basic strategy to shut down the energy engines, including some drugs and supplements I selected. For more ideas about drugs and supplements that can be used along this line just go to fermentation inhibitors and respiration inhibitors pages. 

Note on the figure above:

  • For each drug or supplement, only the major targets relevant to this strategy are mentioned (otherwise most of the drugs and supplements have multiple targets, e.g. Metformin also affects fermentation, Canagliflozin also affects mitochondria) 
  • Blue-coloured hexagons represent repurposed drugs while Moustard-coloured hexagons represent natural extracts

Example of daily doses that I would consider on the above (oral administration):

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I would always start each drug an supplement step by step towards the target dose, and not all at once. For example I would add one new drug or supplement every two days (to identify any undesired reaction if any) and increase towards the target dose during e.g. two weeks.

As indicated in the figure below, in order to further improved the above strategy, I would also consider the addition of intravenous administration of:

1. High dose Vitamin C as discussed here 
2. Metronomic 2DG as discussed here 

In case this strategy is combined with chemotherapy, I would stop all fermentation inhibitors 3 days before chemo (including Metformin/Berberine as it also affects fermentation but not Doxycicline or Atorvaquone), and restart them in the day of chemo, starting with Metformin during the chemo day, and the others building them back up step by step. The first to restart are re-purposed drugs, and about 3 days after the plant extracts such as Quercetin and EGCG. Omega 3, I would keep it ON continuously.

In case this strategy is combined with radio-therapy, I would stop all plant extracts 3 days before radio and restart them about 3 days after. All the others, including Omega 3, and specifically respiration inhibitors, I would keep ON.

Note that the combination of Meformin and Syrosingopine has been explored intensively during the past months as some of the patients around the world are implementing this combo and some on our forum and the Inspire forum are possibly seeing positive results (Ref.). So we can argue that one simple way to implement the above strategy is to only combine Metformin with Syrosingopine as discussed here (Ref.).

If High Dose Vitamin C treatment is performed, I would avoid taking GLUT1 inhibitors (such as Caffeine and others) several hours prior to Vitamin C administration since GLUT1 transporters are required for the absorption of Vitamin C inside cancer cells (Ref.).

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Extending “Shut Down Energy Engines” Strategy

In the Figure below, “Shut Down Energy Engines” strategy is depicted at the main strategy, and at the right side, in order of priority there are other strategies that are considered as having good potential to support our main strategy. Of-course, this picture would change if we would chose another Central strategy instead of “Shut Down Energy Engines”.   

If I would look for ways to further improve the above strategy, the first strategy to consider as a good addition is the strategy to acidify the cancer cells. This strategy has been specifically discussed here.

Adding “Acidify Cancer Cell” strategy to enhance “Shut Down Energy Engines” strategy

Why I think this is a good idea? The strategy focused on “Shut Down Energy Engines” included respiration inhibitors. Inhibiting respiration effectively, redirects energy production on the fermentation path, and if that will still be active (i.e. not effectively inhibited by our supplements and drugs), cancer cells will produce large amount of protons (acidity) that need to be exported in order to avoid the cancer cell death. In other words, it is possible for cancers to use fermentation as an escape route. If this is the case, inhibiting the transporters/mechanisms used by cancer cells to push the protons outside the cell will lead to accumulation of protons (acidity) inside the cancer cell, shut down of fermentation and finally cancer cell death.

It makes also very much sense to consider “Acidify Cancer Cell” as a next strategy to add, given the large overlap of drugs and supplements required for the two strategies, i.e. for “Shut Down Energy Engines” and “Acidify Cancer Cell”. For example, Metformin, Doxycicline, Quercetin, Statins, Syrosingopine, Diclofenac are already known as cell acidifies. So it would only required at least one, possibly two other drugs to address “Acidify Cancer Cell” strategy relatively well. Those repurposed drugs are:

  • Amiloride (as a Na/H exchange inhibitors) read more here on the doses (Note: when using Amiloride, blood levels of potassium have to be verified every two weeks to make sure it doesn’t go to dangerous levels)
  • Acetozolamide (as a CA IX inhibitors) read more here on the doses
Other approaches that could enhance “Shut Down Energy Engines” strategy

Increasing intracellular acidity also inhibits fermentation (Ref.), inhibits β-Catenin (Ref.), inhibits mTOR (Ref.) and triggers authophagy (Ref.).  However, if the strategies above are addressed well, tumours will be destroyed regardless of autophagy. Nevertheless, if one would want to also address autophagy it would make sense to consider Hydroxychloroquine at about 200mg/day (due to it’s long half life, taking it even every few days make do it’s job). Normally, Hydroxychloroquine has serious challenges in reaching the tumor location due to the typically acidity around the tumors combined with it’s weak-base profile – acidity around the tumor will protonate Hydroxychloroquine. However, when combining Hydroxychloroquine with the strategies above protonation may not be the challenge anymore, since the fermentation is reduced or protons accumulated inside the cancer cells. Note that in my view, Hydroxychloroquine is part of the Nutrient Depletion strategy.

Going further on extending “Shut Down Energy Engines” strategy, we could also consider adding at least part of the “Cellular Building Blocks inhibition” with a specific focus on addressing Cholesterol production. This also makes sense to consider in extension of “Shut Down Energy Engines” strategy since again, there is a good amount of overlap of the supplements and drugs used for the two strategies, i.e. “Shut Down Energy Engines” and “Cellular Building Blocks inhibition”. More specifically, Cholesterol production inhibition also includes Satins, Metformin, Doxycicline, Omega 3, Berberine as discussed here (Ref.). To further complete this strategy, I would consider adding HCA and Dipyridamole. Dypiridamole and HCA daily doses are discussed here (Ref.).

In summary, an extension the “Shut Down Energy Engines” strategy, would contain

  • at least on of the proton pump inhibitors Amiloride or Acetozolamide, preferably both
  • the authophagy inhibitor Hydroxychloroquine 
  • HCA and if possible Dypiridamole 

Finally, regardless of the treatment strategy, in parallel to the central strategy, I would always consider using drugs and supplements to

  • address parasites and inhibit fast cell division, such as Mebendazole 
  • reduce inflammation and inhibit metastasis such as Curcumin, baby Aspirin and Olive Leaf Extract
  • support vital organs and immune system such as Vitamin D, Milk Thistle and Astragalus


This site is not designed to and does not provide medical advice, professional diagnosis, opinion, treatment or services to you or to any other individual. Through this site and linkages to other sites, I provide general information for educational purposes only. The information provided in this site, or through linkages to other sites, is not a substitute for medical or professional care, and you should not use the information in place of a visit, call consultation or the advice of your physician or other healthcare provider. I am not liable or responsible for any advice, course of treatment, diagnosis or any other information, services or product you obtain through this site. This is just my own personal opinion regarding what we have learned on this road.

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247 thoughts on “Shutting Down the Power House of Cancer

  1. Happy New Year!!!

    My best wishes for you all, good health and lot’s of love.

    Thank you all for everything.

    Thank you Daniel for all your relentless work to fight off this huge problem.

    Excelent presentation this time.



      1. Daniel you are amazing. Thank you is not a big enough word nor does it carry enough meaning. In your limited spare time could you possibly help me? My 28 year old daughter has Ewing’s sarcoma in her pelvis…not operable… She’s done 35 proton radiation sessions and starts round 11 of 14 on Monday. I have had her taking the COC drugs for 3 months so far to aid her journey. She also takes:
        Reishi Mushroom
        Omega #
        Garcinia Combogia + Alpha lipoic acid
        (deciding about quercetin and berberine)

        Sarcomas are nasty….Would you add anything else?
        Thank you so much,

        1. Dear Robin,

          I am so sorry you have to deal with this challenge … indeed sarcomas are challenging and in order to give you a deeper answer, I would need more time. At this moment I am travelling, and will have very little time during the next 1.5 weeks. After that (if you could please remind me) I should be able to find the time to look again closer to sarcomas and see what would be best in my view.
          Until than the only point I would make is that fermentation has to be specifically addressed as much as possible. That means more repurposed drugs on that line if possible and higher dose of supplements addressing fermentation. Example of drugs and supplements addressing fermentation are here

          Kind regards,

          1. Hello Daniel,
            My son has been battling ewings sarcoma for 3 years..he is 21. He relapsed to his lung 1 year post completion on first line chemo. He is currently NED again and we would like to keep him that way…Can you please list the top off label and supplements he should take and doses? We are also interested in combining IVC, fasting and doxycycline? Thoughts? Also, do you believe moderate hyperthermia…we can get his temp to 103f in traditional finnish sauna is useful? Thank you so much Daniel for your insights! Nancy and Sam

            1. Dear nsturdevant,

              Thank you for your comment. In my view the very important keywords here are inflammation and immune system. So I would focus on supplements and drugs that contribute along this line. Drugs that I would use in this case are not many, actually only one and that is Aspirin 100mg/day. And maybe Cimetidine (Tagamet) at 400mg/day which has anti-metastasis activity.

              In terms of supplements”

              Along the line of inflammation I would consider
              – Olive Leaf Extract – about 1.5g/day
              – Curcumin – about 3-5g/day
              – Omega 3 (high in EPA/DHA) – about 3g/day
              – Black Cumin Oil – about 1-1.5g/day

              Along the line of immune support
              – Mushrooms (such as Coriolus and Agaricus)
              – Vitamin D3 in the range of 3 to 5000ui/day
              – Melatonin from 20mg/day or more
              – Aswaghanda to help with cortisol – 1 to 1.5g/day
              – Good probiotics

              Beyond this, I would make sure that the lifestyle is good in terms of sleep and diet. Fasting from time to time coudl help. Metformin or Berberine prior to (expected) heavy meals could help. Extremes are not good I think because of potential to induce inflammation. Vitamin C in high dose from time to time is good but I would not use Doxy in this NED situation.

              There are many other drugs and supplements that could be good, but these are in my view some of the most important in NED.

              If I would want to do more, in sarcoma Fermentation is key to address, so I would add some additional fermentation inhibitors. There is an entire list of Fermentation inhibitors that I listed here If you have other questions please let me know.

              I hope this helps.

              Kind regards,

          2. Hello Daniel, my son has ewings sarcoma and has recently started daily low dose cyclophosphamide and high dose celebrex. Which fermentation inhibitors can he take while on this chemo regime?
            You note not to take many of these while on chemo.
            He currently takes 3g fish oil, 1g metformin, 222mg of menbendazole, 60mg melatonin and 200mg of dipyridamole. Should we stop these?

          1. Hi Zednek,
            What does diclofenac do? Which pathway does it block? She takes 20mg of melatonin and 500mg of berberine. I don’t know why I left those out of above list. Thanks for your help!

          2. I am sorry for your situation, mine is almost the same.

            I was in contact with one researcher in USA – he was preparing for new Ewing sarcoma drug clinical trials. Have your heard about that?
            also, was PD-L check done?

          1. Gosh Jonah, after 7 months of research I’ve yet to see the article you linked. Thank you so much!! And I happen to have sulforaphane in the house because I take it. It’s broccoli sprouts right?
            Thanks again for taking the time out of your day to help.


            1. Hi Robin,

              Indeed, the best source for Sulforaphane is broccoli sprouts. A therapeutic dose starts at approx 60 grams of the sprouts. It’s a lot to eat but easier to ingest in a smoothy. Or a combination of sprouts with supplements and/or powder: – Organic Broccoli Sprout Powder (Health Ranger) – Avmacol® – NanoPSA (a blend of NanoStilbene™ and Broccoli Sprout Extract).

              In the forum I’ve posted instructions on how to sprout broccoli:

        2. FYI: About curcumin
          Formulations for higher bioavailability of curcumin:
          Curcumin C3-complex® + Bioperine(Possibly not as effective as products that use above mentioned nanotechnologies and formulations.)

          1. Hi Johan.
            Happy New Year
            Can you please help with sourcing Syrosingopine. Have tried to look on here but am having a hard time. Also,Thank you for sharing the video on making the dehydroascorbic acid. I am not sure why more people are not utilizing that form compared to liposomal ascorbic acid. Do you think we can do the same with Quercetin or Curcumin?


            1. Hi Jens, thanks, and happy new year!

              A member here on the forum tried syrosingopine in combination with metformin:
              I’d suggest asking where he bought it (he might still have some).

              Very few people use dehydroascorbic acid because ascorbic acid is more widely known due to Linus Pauling’s work and its convenience as it’s easily accessible. But the work of Poydock with DHA is equally impressive IMO.

              The biological activity of curcumin is totally different though. One of the curcumin formulations I prefer is CurcuWin. I reviewed a few different formulations a while ago:

            2. Curcumin in combination with photodynamic therapy seems promising:

              Curcumin in combination with visible light inhibits tumor growth in a xenograft tumor model.
              “Data presented show that only curcumin/light treatment evoked a significant tumor growth inhibition compared to
              the control group. The average tumor volume at Day 12 in curcumin/light treated mice was reduced by approximately
              70% in comparison to the control group. The tumor volume reduction of the curcumininjected but nonirradiated group
              was not significant (p 5 0.16 versus control), whereas the curcumin/light group also showed a significant difference
              versus this group (p 5 0.05). ”

      2. Hi, the syrosingopine paper says supplemental K2 rescues NAD+ and thereby cancer cells and their energy production. Would that likely be true in all the approaches/ protocols that target the cancer cells’ energy production (and maybe even in in other treatments)?
        Thanks for your thoughts on this.

        1. Hi Luce,

          Thank you for the question. Vit K2 helps overcome the mitochondria complex 1 inhibition by Metformin and as a result enables the regeneration of NAD+. Depending on the mitochondria deplition agent, Vit K2 my help recovery of respiration function and energy production in mitochondria. As a result, Vit K2 is also best to avoid in the ATP depletion strategy.

          This could also be relevant for other strategies, such as acidifying the intracellular space of tumor cells. In that case we also want to inhibit mitochondria, in order to have the flux switched to fermentation, while inhibiting the proton pumps.

          Looking from the point of view of the above strategies, we see Vit K2 in a negative light. However, there is one other treatment strategy where Vit K2 becomes relevant in a positive sense. There is a perspective in science and also in the alternative treatment cancer space, where it is argued that cancer is a result of mitochondria dysfunction. When considering that perspective as an approach to be tested, Vit K2 would be used, together with other mitochondria activators such as coenzyme Q10 and Alpha Lipoic Acid. In general, I think this would be an approach to test in early phase mainly. I would also consider combining Vit K2 with DCA, as both are mitochondria activators.

          Kind regards,

          1. Thanks for your reply, which confirms my conclusion: good in host-based, mitochondria-healing approach but not recommended with a protocol that intends to interfere with cancer cell mitochondria.

    1. Great info…I’ve put together a protocol to attack prostate cancer but will need a integrated oncologist to write prescriptions for others. Living in So. California and would like a resourse for finding one. Can you help.? __Robert

        1. Daniel, did you have any problems with packages being stopped by Customs? IIRC you live in the UK, right? Here in Australia you can only import pharmaceuticals with a doctor’s prescription. If the package is labelled “Buy-Pharma” that would be a red flag for Customs.

          1. Dear Stuard,

            When I ordered my drugs some years ago there was no problem (I live in the Netherlands). I see that now I cannot order anymore from the Netherlands so I guess they remove the countries where they experience challenges at the customs. Only once I had an issue as the drugs were considered in a special category – in that case, I was positively surprised to see that the pharmacy returned my money back.

            Kind regards,

  2. Hi Daniel.
    What a great way to start the year with an exceptional article as always, this article reinforces my belief in the protocol that I have envisioned for my wife, really magnificent clarity of presentation, my dream for 2020 is mitometformin + syrosingopine + amiloride hexamethylene + IV EGCG + IV Quercetin to achieve all these formulations would take the protocol to a higher level.
    Thank you Daniel for your dedication and work I think heaven has already been won by you ,your wife will be proud of you watching from heaven

    1. Dear Marcos,

      You are too kind with your words. Thank you so much. Where do you get your Quercetin IV? There is one source in Ukraine ready for IV but I think it has a little too much polyvinylpyrrolidone inside for high dose, yet usable.

      Kind regards,

        1. Hi Marcos,

          Here is the info I received from a doctor using it: “We used 1 cc ethanol per 10 mg of tetrandrine with 1 cc dmso and tiny bit kremfor el. In 175 cc saline.”
          And here is a Chinese study given Tetrandrine IV to patinets: “Patients randomized to the treatment group also received tetrandrine (Yixian®, Jiangxi Yintao Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (Fuzhou, China) 150 mg in 500 mL NS via slow i.v. infusion for 10 days.”

          I hope this helps.

          Kind regards,

  3. Hi Daniel,

    First of all thank you and congratulations for summarize all the info in this post.

    I´d like to ask you if flarin (ibuprofen) is too a fermentation inhibitor as diclofenac ; i know that flarin is a good COX inhibitor but i don´t know anyrhing else. Would you change flarin for diclofenac with NED situation?

    Thank you

    Healthy new year

    1. Hi Inabari,

      Thanks you! Happy and Healthy New Year!

      For NED I would not focus so much on fermentation inhibition, but more on inflammation. In this context, and given that Ibuprofen may have lower side effects (but also less powerful), I would go for Ibuprofen.

      For active disease, I would better go for Diclofenac (if is to choose between the two) and would indeed focus on inhibiting fermentation (next to addressing inflammation).

      Kind regards,

  4. Thank you so, so much for this! I am one who has been lost in the vast array of available drugs/supplements, unable to discern which are more valuable than others at this point in time. I started with the “throw the kitchen sink” at it approach which resulted in an enormous amount of pills and insufficient dosages. As I read through past posts and comments, I was grateful for and amazed at the information provided, yet so overwhelmed. I felt like my lack of scientific background, knowledge and understanding hindered me from putting it all together. Thank you for providing clarity. I truly look forward to more information on additional strategies (soon, please? 🙂 and am excited for the launch of your Supplement Company.

    1. Thank you so much for your comment Janet. Nobody knows everything and we are all learning together, and hopefully help each other to learn faster. It’s normal to get to a point when it feels overwhelming but that is typically the point when we actually advanced a lot or knowledge. What follows after that is more and more clarity. I am sure that will happen to you too. I will do my best to address other strategies soon, but at this point I am working alone on so many subjects …. and starting up the supplement company becomes a priority that wold help me continue my activity in oncology (and even intensify it).

  5. Well, this is a master piece, Dan! Bravo! Is extiting for reading and really great idea you to find the way to bond different subjects and strategies – very skilful presentation. It is brilliant start of the year and I think your efforts will give many hopes for people in need. I know is hard to you to make tons of things alone but let me encourage you – you are not alone and if you need any help that can be done by fellow participants – please ask. 😉 La multi ani si sa fii sanatos. 🙂

    1. Thanks a lot for your kind words Milen. I think it can be better since for beginners may be a little heavy, but it was the best I could do in the available time. Thanks a lot for the offer to help. There are three areas where I need help: the blog, the foundation, the company. Maybe the best is to start thinking (or continue because you did offer a start a month ago) about how this website should evolve. After we agree on that, we can than agree on who will help where in order to move it to that direction. Or we can also consider to spin out some of the info from this website into an e.g. mobile application (in case we have people that could help with that) that could for example offer information on various strategies to be considered as a function of (general) patient data. I guess this should be the next step since I guess it starts to be too much content to navigate through. What do you think?

      1. Daniel: I’m a software developer, and willing to help out with technical as well as content editing/restructuring aspects.

        Technical: I noticed you are using wordpress on your blog; I have experience working on it. As also with mobile app development.

        I do not think this is too much content to navigate through. Remember wikipedia… it is giant in terms of content.
        In my opinion, a mobile app is only any good if it offers some personalization based on user/patient’s profile (which the website can too for what it’s worth!)

        According to me, you need to separate the main content from it’s comments.
        So the website separates into two portions: A dedicated index of knowledge, and a discussion forum.

        The simplest strategy for you (since you are using wordpress) is to use wordpress pages for content created by key editors and admins of the website, and posts/comments for non-curated content (including patient specific threads). You can turn off comments on the pages to ensure that the information disbursal remains clean and to the point.

        If anyone provides great information in the forum, an editor can put it up on the relevant page with a link to the original discussion thread.

        1. That’s excellent advice, prashant! At the end of the articles, instead of offering to comment Daniel could offer readers the option to schedule an online appointment, free of charge, and directions and links to post questions/remarks, etc in the forum.

        2. Hi Prashant,

          Thanks a lot for your response and suggestions.

          1. I totally agree that Wikipedia an universe of information and people can still navigate through it. I think here it would be great to have a page containing a tool, that could guide the visitor through the content depending on his answers to specific questions, such as those mentioned by Milen in the comment here. Even for answering general questions, it’s a lot of work to structure the information in order to give the answers, but I think it would add good value to those that are new to various concepts we are discussing here and do not have the time to go through everything. I should probably check if there are plugins that can enable such functionality.

          2. It’s a good idea to consider switching off the comment option on the main posts, mainly because it may be a little unnatural the way we now have to places where we can comment. I actually considered this in the past, but so far I decided to keep it like this due to two main reasons:
          – the purpose of the comments on the posts was to have a place where we can discuss the content addressed by the post, while the purpose of the forum was to enable the visitors to start own topics as well as having a place where we can consolidate relevant content by specific subjects
          – if the forum-plugin would stop working for any reason (such as unprofitable activity of those making the plugin), we could at least have the main comment sections running and with the content available
          Nevertheless, the two points above can be reconsidered as I think it may be more simple to just have on place where we can comment and discuss.

          Kind regards,

      2. In reply to your comment PRASHANT offers some ideas (which I hardly understand due to lack of sufficient both technical and scientific knowledge). According the conversation that we started a month ago I still consider how to handle with the following obstacles: 1) I’m not familiar with all the information on the site and need a lot of time to read all information in the blog – articles (I recently counted the number of pieces – 132) and some thousand comments, actually – more than 4-year work in the blog but practically more than 6 years overall. To start with suggestions for some evolving or reorganization of the site I need to encompass the available info or at least to find out main vectors; 2) I did not use the forum till now at all so I have no any idea about the way it works let alone for the information that is shared there (which is related with p. 1); 3) because of 1) and 2) I still try to create an idea how I want to structure the subject (for example for spreadsheets) and the idea did not crystalize yet. You know – there is time for maturation. So, if I am not able to know what I want or how I imagine something I can’t start asking people. 🙂 Because their suggestions or answers will not help me properly although new ideas may arise. This does not mean I will not start ever just I need some fuel to shift the gear.
        This article above seems also as good starting point regarding possible structure.
        Probably a good idea from PRASHANT is that we need to find valuable comments (in both blog and forum) and to incorporate them in original articles – as update or something like this. In this way they will be even more detailed and will give more profound knowledge. Later we may fragment it to some pieces to make it simpler. In this way we’ll have information for both – people with basic knowledge that don’t want to go into the depth of the process and for people that want to be familiar with what’s going on there.
        Another good idea probably is to start with simple, basic questions: what follows if someone is diagnosed with cancer; what therapies are applied; what markers need to follow, etc. and to continue as Wikipedia – to go into the depth with hyperlinks of existing information on the site.
        If we agree that if this is the direction that we’ll head then probably it is good to ask beginners (in the matter of cancer – to some extent it includes me too) what do they need to see.
        I imagine some steps that follow the natural process, ex.: 1. what to do knowing there is diagnose of some cancer?; 2. what is core treatment and what is supportive one?; 3. what is relevant for this type of cancer?; 4. where I can find the drugs/supplements/clinics that I need for both – core and supportive treatment?; 5. How to know whether things are going well or not that good, what information to follow (markers, etc.)?; 6. How much time I need to apply some treatment? When I need to shift to another treatment? 7. If everything’s fine and there is significant or full recovery how to proceed further (diet, exercises, lifestyle, drugs, supplements, etc.)? 8. If nothing helps, what is “Last resort” option (other conventional or optional treatments)?

        1. Dear Milen,

          As mentioned in the answer of Prashant, I like your idea to start with simple, basic questions. When I find the time, I will check to see if there is any plugin available that could nicely address this and integrate it in this website.

          Kind regards,

  6. Could I ask about relation of Extending “Shut Down Energy Engines” Strategy (as was explained for Central strategy) – which of them should be ON and OFF with chemo and radiotherapy?

    1. Good question. It depends:
      – If the chemo is a weak base type, all can stay ON [Amiloride, Acetozolamide, Hidroxychloroquine (HCQ), HCA, Dypiridamole (DPDM)]
      – If chemo is weak-acid type, Amiloride and Acetozolamide should be OFF 3 days prior to chemo and can be restarted once chemo starts. In this case, HCQ, HCA and DPDM stay ON
      – If Radiotherapy, all can stay ON

      However if Chemotherapy or Radio is the core treatment, we will need to change a little the approach. In that case, in my view, the central strategy becomes the “Pro-Oxidant” strategy. Therefore, the priorities will change:
      – Priority 1 will be the “Pro-Oxidant” strategy (to be discussed, but that includes shutting down the anti-oxidant production)
      – Priority 2 will be the “Shut-Down Energy Engines”
      – Priority 3 will be “Acidify Cancer Cells”
      – Priority 4 will be “Nutrient Depletion”
      As the priority decreases, we become more selective and pick not all but only some of the most relevant drugs for the Central strategy and the core drug within that.

  7. Hi D,

    Thanks for a great post. I am slightly confused about “Nutrition depletion strategy”. Is this alternative fuel pathway other than fermentation and respiration? (e.g., glutamine, fatty acid, autophagy, etc.?)

    1. I think it is a different strategy; that by “Nutrition depletion” Daniel means denying the nutrients or building materials cancer cells need to make more cancer cells. Not the same as cutting off the energy to the cancer cells, although sometimes doing one thing also has an effect on the other.

    2. Hi Ksh.

      Thank you. When I speak about “Nut Depletion” I am thinking of various aspects to address. I would think of three major categories:
      1. mechanism and nutrients when the source is blood vessels (e.g. angiogenesis as a mechanism and glutamine etc. as nutrients)
      2. mechanism and nutrients when the source is tumor micro environment (e.g. lactic acid, acetate, etc.)
      3. mechanism and nutrients when the source is tumor intracellular space (e.g. authophagy, lipid droplets, etc.)

      Kind regards,

      1. I see. Thanks to both of you. Did you have any post on the nutrition depletion?

        My wife started using parp strategy 2 days ago, and I think nut. depletion may be suitable for us as we got to hinder DNA damage repair (slightly confused whether “shutting down the power house” or “nutriotion depletion” should be a priority”, but anything that would help.

      2. Hi Daniel, I am curious about the role of diet and fasting driven autophagy in the case of pancreatic cancer.

        1. A low carb and low protein (to reduce insulin, IGF-1) diet would seem to be beneficial to keep both glucose and insulin low. That leaves a high-fat diet. But high fat drives high CCK hormone which is implicated in the growth of pancreatic cancer. So, it seems even a low-carb/low-protein/high-fat diet would be detrimental.

        2. Secondly, considering short-medium fasting leading to autophagy, autophagy in a normal state can be protective against cancer. But cancer cells can use autophagy to their own benefit. So it is unclear if that would be beneficial, and my actually be a bad thing.

        Do you see any information around diet and fasting that might be suitable in the case of pancreatic cancer. ? Thanks very much.

        1. Hi Gmt,

          1. While I do not like anymore to be extremely strict about the diet I wold indeed avoid sugar, reduce carbohydrates (to avoid peak blood glucose levels), avoid red meat, and in hormonal cancers avoid fats.

          2. I would consider addressing autophagy with autophagy inhibitors only as part of a more intense treatment that may include e.g. radio, chemo, angio-genesis inhibitors, to put short term pressure on cancer cells while they are under attack due to treatments. On longer term I think it doesn’t make much sense since tumors have time to find other ways to access resources.

          Therefore, sugar and fats are key elements to avoid when dealing with pancreatic cancer. Having these in mind, you could use a nutritionist to guide you along this road.

          Kind regards,

  8. Wow Daniel, just wow! This may be your single most important article. I can’t thank you enough for your relentless work and I urge everyone that benefits from the knowledge on this site to MAKE A MONTHLY DONATION to support Daniel and his work to bring this knowledge to the masses. Very exciting to hear that you are pursuing your plans for the foundation and for the supplement company. I wish you a Happy New Year and best of luck with your projects!

    1. Hi Carl,

      Thanks a lot! Very nice to hear again from you! Yes, even 1$/month would help so I can move towards financial sustainability. In that case I would be able to allocate most of my time to research and communication and share of info, instead of spending a lot of time to find ways to support my activity in the oncology space. Have a very Happy New Year dear Carl!

      Kind regards,

  9. Excelente Daniel time to visit PayPal to contribute.
    Can I ask you if you have heard about these? I’m looking at RE rosemary extract and especially at ursolic acid for AML and for MDS in order to change the micro environment in the bone marrow. Have you seen any research on this?
    Im on 3rd year MDS no chemo to date, preped for stem cell because Phoenix hospitals including mayo deny that CAR-T was approved for adults even when presented with printed evidence.

    1. Hi Richard, That’s odd about Phoenix and CAR-T. My onc in Sacramento Dr. Kiwan and also Dr. Toscano (UCD) is willing to give it to me (providing my insurance company would approve, it’s one of the most costly treatments) for relapsed lymphoma. Even though there are some questions about CAR-T and bugs to be worked out, eg the cytokine release syndrome etc. Several studies are being started even now on these things but it’s definitely being used (is approved).

  10. Hello Daniel and greetings to everyone, I stumbled on your website yesterday. A lightening bolt from an angel above led me to it. Even though I’m part nutrition scientist, much cancer healing information comes to me this way. So in the end I trust my instincts, intuition, heart, and the Universal forces leading me to this place of knowledge and connection. I have to say….thank you from the bottom of my heart and from the tippey tips of my brain! I stumbled on the “How to Starve Cancer” protocol (Jane McLelland) in June which was amazing. But now YOU, Daniel, the extent of your knowledge and willingness to share opens up my entire perspective, even wider. (note: how do you prefer donations? a paypal or other account?)
    I’ve had Stage IV relapsed follicular lymphoma now partly aggressive (grade 3A)– a poor prognosis in the medical establishment. I’ve kept it from growing out of control for 1.5 years and have refused a stem cell transplant for now, but now am on the brink of having a second chemo (R-CHOP) to knock back the fast-growing cells and have more of a chance to work on the stem cells. However, I keep finding strategies to help myself! And so we’ll see. I go each day and see what I can do, listen to my heart. My onc wonders why I’m not sick with B symptoms as I should have been a long time ago. But I do many of the starve cancer strategies, which now I find out, are only the tip of your iceberg of strategies. Your knowledge is so amazing here Daniel and all the informative posts and the forum/comments from everyone. I feel I’ve stumbled into an entire new universe than can help me! For example, I was at a loss why the DCA wasn’t helping me (the cancer recently progressed) but I see from your DCA post which things I’m doing wrong, why it’s not working, and why my glucose metabolism is suddenly haywire (bouts of hypoglycemia). I’ve fallen into the category you speak of here of doing too many things in too small of doses, some of them competing with each other. I need to get more focused on my strategies. And so will post more on this to get help. Mostly I want to thank you thank you thank you — Daniel and everyone here, for the journey we are on, and helping each other. It feels so very important, not just for ourselves and our own healing, but for others too. And for all the angels who are now helping us all. Happy New Year to Everyone!

      1. Hi Daniel,
        I wanted to post a question about some DCA issues, but I’m embarrassed to say, I went to the forum and couldn’t see where to start a new post! Sheesh. I’ve been taking DCA for 4 months, worked up to 25 mg/kg and suddenly now getting glucose/hypoglycemia issues — waking up with low blood sugar with symptoms. You mentioned that DCA can also impair our glucose metabolism. Past weeks I’ve been taking it hours before breakfast (during morning fast) but maybe the solution is as easy as taking it right before eating? For the first 2 months I took it after breakfast. I didn’t think it mattered that much with it’s long half-life. Thank you!

    1. Hello Adele,

      I just found this site as well, via this article which was posted on a FB group that I’m in. Amazing, indeed! My husband was recently diagnosed with Stage 2 follicular lymphoma, grades 1, 2, and 3a. It was the 3a symptoms that got him into see the doctor a couple of months ago. He immediately made diet and lifestyle changes after his diagnosis and all symptoms, except the bulkiness of his nodes have disappeared. He’s actually feeling quite good and energetic, but the nodes! He’s been offered B+R by both oncologists we’ve seen think he should take it before his condition worsens. One oncologist said he would do just the immunotherapy drug, but that’s not his recommendation We’re trying to see what we can do to reverse the bulkiness and the 3a so that he can comfortably stay on watch and wait. We too have started on some of these supplements + metformin, but see now where we need to increase dosage and the number of repurposed drugs and supplements. Daniel makes it so clear. I wonder if you have done HBOT and or Vit C IV? I wish you all the best in your healing journey with FNHL.

  11. Dear Daniel,
    Another amazing article for us in the new year! The time, organization and care you put into this is so appreciated and very helpful for people figuring out how to get started. We are forever grateful for your selfless service and work on behalf off all of us fighting the fight for ourselves and our loved ones.

  12. Hi Daniel,
    I agree with everyone, that this is a HUGE important article, full of so much good information. I’ve read it 4 times already. I have a question on where DCA fits into all this. I thought it was a mitichondria disrupter (generally). Which category of your organization of strategy”cells” above does DCA fit into? Which category of strategy does it fit into. I’m rethinking all my strategies and want to get more focused.
    Thank you for all you do!

    1. Hi Adele,

      I did not included DCA because it is somewhere in between: it doesn’t truly inhibit fermentation and it doesn’t inhibit mitochondria (based on general knowledge). It’s enabling pyruvate get back on track, and in this way DCA is a kind of mitochondria activator However, recent research suggests that DCA has various off targets less known that lead to reduction of oxygen consumption in mithocondria
      So overall, even if DCA is somehow a little in between from the point of view of the strategy discussed here, I think it could be a relevant addition to this strategy if there is more space to add capsules. There are studies indicating that DCA works well with most of the drugs discussed here, such as Metformin (Ref.)
      Also, I must say that the drugs and supplements mention above to address the “Shut Down Energy Engine” strategy are those that I selected from a longer list of fermentation and mitochondria inhibitors
      In those lists, there are other drugs and supplements that can be very relevant.
      DCA is also mentioned in those lists.

      Kind regards,

  13. From what I understand some types of cancer cells (e.g., localized prostate cancer) do not ferment glucose. What would you recommend for these patients? Thanks

  14. Dan, you say “3. Syrosingopine: 2mg/day” above. Would this 2 mg a day dose be enough for a syrosingopine plus metformin anti-cancer therapy? If so, did you figure it out or did you find it somewhere?

    1. Dear GgE,

      Thank you for the question. There is no human study to indicate the effective dose of Syrosingopine against cancer. This is why, like typically done in clinical trials, the best we can do is to consider the known safe dose and start from there. 2mg/day is a known safe dose. We can always consider escalating the dose step by step while making sure the steps are done in a safe manner having an eye on potential side effects. Alternatively, we can stay with the known safe dose of 2mg/day and rely on the other drugs and supplements inside the strategy to work together with Syrosingopine and help achieve the purpose.

      Kind regards,

    1. Hi Bobby, as discussed in the post above, it depends on your core treatment. Are you now using or considering to use chemo, radio, surgery or any other major treatments?
      Kind regards,

  15. Daniel, So I am trying to block pathways for ER+ HER2- Breast Cancer…mets to Hip, Sacrum and liver. I am on oral Chemo Xeloda…its 1 week on 1 week off how would I use things with that? I am on Propranolol, Metformin 500mg 1 x a day, 500 mg Berberine 1 x a day, 20mg Metformin, Lovastatin 1 x a day, 2000 IU Vitd3, K2, Magnesium Malamate, Magnesium Citrate, Low Dose Baby Asprin. I have a script for Doxycycline and for Mebendazole (both I haven’t started yet because I am not sure how to take with the oral chemo) Also I got a script for 25mg Diprydamole 4 x a day but I was told not to take that with the propranolol so not sure when and how to take that? Any recommendations?

    1. Dear Nicole,

      This is what I would consider:

      1. I would use Propranolol continuously
      2. I would increase Metformin if possible to 1g/day or at least 750mg/day and take it until a few days (e.g. 3 days) before each cycle of Xeloda when I would stop it. After starting Xeloda I would restart Metformin, the same day. So I would end up using about 11 days Metformin out of the 14 days of ON/OF Xeloda cycle. The point of stopping Metformin 3 days before Xeloda is to give chance to the tumor cells to “weak-up” and be better targeted by Xeloda. The point of using Metformin starting with day one of Xeloda is to help Xeloda do a better job.
      3. For Berberine 500mg/day, I would follow the same schedule as with Metformin. If not possible to increase Metformin dose, I would increase Berberine from 500mg to 1000mg/day
      4. 20mg Lovastatin/day is very little in my view. I would change it to Atorvastatin due to reasons discussed here and I would consider 40mg to 80mg as used in COC protocol
      5. Vit D3 2000ui/day – I would use higher dose
      6. Magnesium is good but I would use Magnesium gluconate if possible
      7. Low dose aspirin I would keep continuously
      8. Mebendazole I would just take continuously at a dose of min 200mg/day with fatty food
      9. There is a minor chance for interaction between Propranolol and Dipyridamole If I would want to add Dipy, I would just start with a low dose and increase step by step towards the target dose as long as there are no side effects
      10. Besides the above, I would consider
      – some stronger fermentation inhibitors such as discussed above. The easiest to implement would be Quercetin, EGCG and Omega 3. Actually, Omega 3 I would consider anyway in breast cancer as wel ass in combo with chemo. I would implement as discussed in the article above.
      – in hormonal cancer such as breast cancer, I would consider adding a few more supplement/drugs the following strategy I would specifically consider adding HCA and maybe Bergamot

      I hope this helps.

      Kind regards,

  16. Daniel, Thank you for your reply…I am sorry…I am not clear about the Metformin?? I can tell you that I hesitate to take more berberine because I find it consitpating.

    I read the article you linked about the Statins…I don’t see how lovastatin is bad and really I am doing soo well on it and I do not think I can get my doctor to prescribe a different kind because she didn’t even want to prescribe that because I do not have high cholesterol …so….Should I take it twice a day instead or do you think it won’t even work?? The article you linked shows it to be good for blocking cancer…. Also the article you linked says that Lovastatin should be taken with food…I didn’t know that …I was taking it at bedtime because that’s what it says on the bottle…should I switch that to Morning?

    About the propranolol…you are saying its ok to take it with dipyridamole??? I heard no because it lowers heart beats per minute. I was originally taking 40mg of the propranolol but my beats per minute dropped to low so I have to cut the pill in 1/2 and 20 mg morning and 20mg evening… isn’t it going to drop again with adding in the dipridamole???

    Reference the Vit D3 when I go any higher than 2000IU a day it bothers my bladder really bad…I have interstitial cystitis…

    I have an Omega 3 but was worried it could prevent my sprecific Chemo from working? Also I want to take Quercitin…any recommendation and time of day and dosage? I cannot get it IV.

    I wanted to also let you know I have Epstien Barr Virus and HSV as well.

    1. Dear Nicole,

      I am speaking theoretically about what I think is the best. Sometimes, these ideas can not be applied due to various reasons. Berberine inducing constipation in your case is such an example.

      Lovastatin is good (I did not said is bad) but as discussed in the article there are others that may be even better due to their pharmacokinetics. Atorvastatin stays longer in the blood and it may penetrate tissue better. This is also one of the reason why COC protocol is suggesting this one. But again Lovastatin is also a good one.

      If I would have one pill only, I would take it at night. If there are more pills to take/day, I would spread them during the day to try to keep a more constant level in the blood.

      If you already so that you experinece side effects from combining Propa with Dypiridamole, please avoid combining them again. My point is that I would combine such drugs only if I would not experience side effects.

      The same applies for Vitamin D3. If higer dose are nos suitable for you, lower to what makes you feel good or remove totally. The first priority is your well being. We have many options for supplements and drugs that can help. No need to force one that makes you feel side effects.

      Based on science, Omega 3 is expected to support chemo However, if you do not feel that is suitable please disregard my idea.

      The post above addressed the proposed dose for Quercetin in my view, but that may be too high for you. You may want to try a lower dose.

      Kind regards,

  17. Daniel, Thank you for taking the time to reply to me again 🙂 So KIND and I greatly appreciate it.
    1 more question…you said you would take the Mebedazole continuously do you mean 1 month on 1 off to rotate with Doxy or just take the Mebedazole continuously for months at a time?

    1. Daniel, I should have mentioned I take berberine for 4 weeks then 2 weeks off because they say you cannot or should not take it continuously?? Am I correct that you say I should take it the same as I take metformin…which would now be 5 days on 2 days off (according to your advice above)?

      1. Do I keep taking the Metformin when I am on the off week of chemo? So in other words I would take it 7 days a week on the off week and when I start chemo I would not take it on the Saturday and Sunday before Monday Chemo and start taking it again with the chemo on Monday? Am I making sense? ha ha?

    2. I would just take Mebendazole continuously without interruption if there is no side effect. If after a few months there is no response, I would stop. If there is response, I would keep it on for life. (why: the case report I discussed in my post on Mebendazole – responding to Mebendazole, and once stopped tumor came back)

      Kind regards,

  18. Dear Daniel and all,

    As for syrosingopine,
    1. Is it still manufactured/ available as a drug? Any known reliable sources?
    2. I couldn’t find info if it is expected to pass blood-brain barrier?
    3. What are the expected/ experienced results of 2mg/day due to lowering blood pressure, if patient is regularly having normal pressure?

    Many thanks for any info!

    Kind regards,

    1. Dear Nissim,

      1. Info is addressed in this thread
      2. The only relevant literature available is on pharmacokinetics is on the parent drug reserpine. According to the scientists involved in studying the drug, there is no reason to think that syrosingopine will be different. So please check Reserpine (I would do it but I have no time now) and please let us know your findings
      3. This point was addressed by the contributors at the link above (the tread on Syrosingopine)

      Kind regards,

        1. Hi Nissim,

          Reserpine if it seems to go through BBB:
          “Reserpine is a sympatholytic agent that acts at the presynaptic nerve terminal of postganglionic adrenergic neurons to cause a depletion of norepinephrine. … Reserpine also crosses the blood-brain barrier, where it causes the brain neurons to become depleted of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. ”
          Sirosingopine is a derivative of reserpine but I am not sure if it meets the same lipophilic qualities. I’m going to look at it because it can be an addition to my therapies

          1. Dear Manuel,

            Thank you for this, I also try to get more information on syrosingopine (+metformin).

            Let’s keep updating if there’s new info.
            Good luck!

            Kind regards,

  19. Manuone said:
    “Reserpine seems to go through BBB: “Reserpine is a sympatholytic agent that acts at the presynaptic nerve terminal of postganglionic adrenergic neurons to cause a depletion of norepinephrine. … Reserpine also crosses the blood-brain barrier, where it causes the brain neurons to become depleted of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. ” Sirosingopine is a derivative of reserpine but I am not sure if it meets the same lipophilic qualities.”

    Based on what I read I don’t yet know if syro goes through the BBB. I assume that it does but it has different and much more reduced effects than reserpine in the depletion of brain and CNS catecholamines. This is supposed to be one of the reasons why reserpine used to cause marked sedation, serious depression and nightmares and many other strong brain-related side effects which were much less pronounced with syro. And this is why reserpine was replaced by syro.

    For some unknown reason I cannot attach files here. So I copy some excerpts:
    “Reserpine was the most potent, rescinnamine the next and syrosingopine the weakest in the depleting effects on brain amines of rauwolfia alkaloids. After syrosingopine, brain dopamine (DA) was decreased to a smaller degree and with a shorter duration as compared with norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT), whereas reserpine elicited a marked and long lasting reduction in these amines. Accordingly, syrosingopine induced a depletion of brain NE and 5-HT without alteration in brain DA content 2-4 days after administration. Repeated administrations of syrosingopine, 2 mg/kg daily for 2 or 4 days, resulted in similar alterations in brain amine levels. This selective depleting effect of syrosingopine on brain amines was potentiated by combined treatment with disulfiram or fusaric acid, a dopamine β-hydroxylase inhibitor. Under the condition of selective depletion of brain amines induced by repeated administrations of syrosingopine, 2 mg/kg daily for 2 days, the analgesic action of morphine was not affected, whereas reserpine and tetrabenazine antagonized morphine analgesia, concomitant with inducing a depletion of all brain amines.” From Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior, Vol. 4, pp. 419-425. Copyright © 1976 by ANKHO International Inc. Selective Depleting Effect of Syrosingopine on Brain Catecholamine Levels with Relation to Morphine Analgesia in the Rat. T. FURUKAWA 1 , T. SANO, Y. KOHNO, M. KOGA AND N. NAGASAKI. Department of Pharmacology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Japan. (Received 24 June 1975)
    “catecholamines released by reserpine are chiefly inactivated by intraneuronal monoamine oxidase . Likewise, catecholamines liberated by syrosingopine may be mostly metabolized in sympathetic neurons in the same way and partly inactivated extraneuronally by catechol-0-methyl transferase (COMT).”
    “Syrosingopine (carbethoxysyrosingoyl reserpate) has been reported to release peripheral catecholamines without appreciably depleting brain amines over a wide dosage range.” From Life Sciences Yol . 5, pp. 1503-1508, 1966 . Pergamon Press Ltd. Printed in Great Britain. THE EFFECT OF SYROSINGOPINE ON SPONTANEOUS EEG AND EEG AROUSAL INDUCED BY EXTERNAL STIMULI IN RABBITS. Y. Takeo, G. R. Pscheidt and H. E. Himwich, Galesburg State Research Hospital, Galesburg, Illinois – 61401
    Cited from F.B.H. Orlans, K.F. Finger and B.B. Brodie, J.Pharmacol . 128, 131 (1960).

    But actually this discussion should go in the syrosingopine pages rather than here.

    1. GgE thanks for the info
      Yes, I think we should move this discussion in the sirosingopina section …
      I am also not clear about the penetration of sirosingopin in BBB …
      On the other hand I would worry about sedation in a patient with a brain tumor that is already quite sleepy.

      Kind regards

      1. Manuone said “I would worry about sedation in a patient with a brain tumor that is already quite sleepy.”
        I would worry too. But if this is the best (or the only) therapy left to fight brain mets or glio, then sleepy is better than nothing.
        On the other hand, syrosingopine is not very sedating by itself, unlike its mother molecule the reserpine. As far as I understand, much of syro’s mild sedating effect doesn’t come from its action on the CNS but from its blood pressure lowering effect instead. And this is easily countered by a cup of coffee or tea, or just plain old caffeine pills like those that students use to prepare for final tests. This should not hurt most people unless their cardiovascular system cannot tolerate it. After all, caffeine 1- has some mild anti-cancer effects by itself; 2- strengthens the immune system; and 3- enhances metformin anti-cancer action in some cancer types.


        European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 2018; 22: 2461-2467 D.J. POPOVIĆ1, D. LALOŠEVIĆ1, D. MILJKOVIĆ1, K.J. POPOVIĆ2, I. ČAPO1, J.K. POPOVIĆ3 Caffeine induces metformin anticancer effect on fibrosarcoma in hamsters

  20. Daniel, you mentioned I should take the menbedazole continuously but you said 200mg per day?? That prescription is usually for 100mg per day was that a typo or do you really mean 200mg per day…because I know the COC only says 100mg a day.?

  21. Hi everyone,

    I am a newcomer to this site and I am very confused about what I should do. I have recently been diagnosed with both LGL leukemia (very rare) and myelodysplastic syndrome (which in about 40% of cases develops into acute myeloid leukemia, or else kills my massive infection or uncontrollable bleeding). My doctor wants to put me on once weekly methotrexate for the LGLL ignore everything else for now. So far I have done nothing except purchase some fenbendazole.

    LGL leukemia is a cancer of the cytotoxic T cells. Myelodysplastic syndrome is caused by some defect or mutation in the progenitor cells of the bone marrow, causing, in my case low red and white blood cell counts. My neutrophils are hovering just above danger level.

    Does anyone have any experience with any of this? I read that I should probably inhibit the JAK/Stat pathway, but the supplements that do his increase NRF2, which is often overexpressed anyway in myelodysplastic syndrome and other forms of cancer.

    And where can you get dipyridamole, if your doctor won’t prescribe it? Or a statin, when your cholesterol levels do not indicate that you could benefit from one?

    I live in Ohio, US, and my doctor works at, and for, a prestigious (and self promoting) medical institution. He has patients scheduled every twenty minutes for months ahead. I like him personally, but he simply doesn’t have the time I would like to have with him to discus options. And he is totally bound by protocol. I do do not believe he is free to step outside the box.

    Any help would be much appreciated.


    1. Hi Joany,

      The ideal always would be to have on our side a doctor who collaborates with us or at least willing to “listen”, unfortunately this does not usually happen. Maybe you can order medications from India or websites like buy-pharma.
      Try to build a therapy step by step. This latest article “the house of power of cancer” and “summary of the website” can give you an idea about the different options.

      kind regards

  22. Hi – Thank you for such a stellar site! I’ve found this to be one of my top cancer go-to websites. I am very interested in your proxidant/antioxidant strategy as I’ve recently started chemotherapy for recurrent, grade 3, stage 3 undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma. I’d like to do everything possible to ensure chemo effectiveness. I love how you laid out the strategy of shutting down the energy source. Do you have the same for pro-oxidant?


    1. Dear Julia,

      Thank you so much for the kind and motivating words! I will do my best to work on that asap. It’s just that I am working on too many things at the same time. However here are a few notes from me:
      – From the pro-oxidant strategy point of view, one of the key re-purposed drugs to support chemo is Auranofin in my view.
      – Next to that, from a drug resistance point of view, there are various aspects that could be considered. Here are some of the major ones I discussed many years ago
      – Because of this reason I would also consider using Ketorolac prior to chemo, if possible
      – Because of reasons discussed here I would stop ferementation inhibitors including Metformin (which indirectly impacts also fermentation) a few days prior to chemo and restart during the chemo day

      Kind regards,

      1. hey denial is ketorolac should be taken in veins or can be taken as tablets, iam afraid that doctors well deny to give it as iv. but i can give it to my mom as in tablets form.

  23. Thanks for the quick reply! I’ve been digging in since receiving your reply. Good stuff! Quick clarifier:

    1) are you considering high dose IV Vit C and antioxidant or a pro-oxidant? I stopped IVC a week before chemo and was considering taking it up on my off weeks. Your comment about highs dose antioxidants has me rethinking, but I’ve always considered it a pro-oxidant.

    2) curcumin? Is that a antioxidant worth avoiding during chemo weeks?

    3) HOCATT machines – I haven’t been feeling well since chemo started. Was looking into this as a way to sweat and get oxygen to cells. Quick reaction?


    1. Dear Julia,

      1. In my view, based on the scientific literature, high dose Vit C is pro-oxidant. Because it inhibits fermentation I would stop it a few days before chemo. I would restarted a few days after.
      The major anti-oxidants I would avoid combining with chemo are Alpha Lipoic Acid, NAC, Glutathione. I would also avoid a few others like Vit E during this time.

      2. Curcumin is not something to avoid during chemo, in my view. I would just not take it a few days after chemo (2-3 days). Curcumin has various anti-cancer effects, some pro-oxidant too, so I see it as part of the plant extracts that are suitable with chemo, Beyond my view, cancer clinics in Germany are using it in combo with chemo and sometimes with successful results.

      3. HOCATT – I do not know the machine. But during chemo or radio it would help to get oxygen to the cells.

      Kind regards,

  24. Hi Daniel,
    Thank you so much for providing all this information. My dad was diagnosed with Urothelial Cancer (bladder cancer) which had started in his left kidney and spread to lymph nodes. He had several rounds of chemo and no response but they were able to remove the kidney and all the lymph nodes successfully. However, after a couple of months, the cancer came back and spread quickly. So they started him on Chemo again (Taxol and Gemzar). By then, we changed his diet, got him started on COC protocol and with fasting (24 hours before chemo and several hours after), he responded and tumors started to shrink slowly. They were shrinking for 4 months and on the 2nd round of scans, they mentioned a node that had increased by .3cm and the rest had shrunk. One also had disappeared. 2.5 months later, on the his scan which was done last week, the same node had increased by a .3 or .4cm and another new one had showed up. 2 of the turmors had shrunk further, 1 was stable and 1 was almost gone. So now I am very worried about the tumors that are growing and not sure what to do. His oncologist has decided to stop all chemo for 2 months to give him a break but this really scares me. He is taking Metformin, Statin, Doxy/Mebendazole (as per COC). Multivitamins (Dr. Fuhrman), Cucumin, Mushroom/berry extract (Dr. Fuhrman), Probiotics, Tambusolin (unrelated to cancer), Vitamin D, Cbd Oil, Omega 3 drops (DHA+EPA). We added (1 month ago) Fermented Wheat Germ Extract (FWGE, AVEMAR) but not sure if we should continue with this? We also added Jason Winters tea since last week. Everything else is through a very healthy, low-GI, vegetarian diet.I would appreciate your advise on whether we should add anything else? Thank you!

      1. Hi Tina- We used it consistently for about two years (husband with prostate cancer), but since he has taken it along many other supplements, we haven’t been able to evaluate its effectiveness. We recently switched it out for other immune supporting supplements with no change in PSA rise.

  25. Hi Tina,
    Avemar is a good product, but if you’re having doubts about using it you could discontinue for a while and see what happens. When using a cocktail of supplements and drugs it’s very useful to keep track of new additions and dosage by writing it down in a journal. This information, in combination with results from bloodwork and scans, can then be very helpful in evaluating all the options.

    How much curcumin is your father taking?

    Have you considered sulforaphane?


  26. Hi Johan,
    Thank you so much for your message. I was having doubts about using Avemar mainly due its high Vitamin E content. I came across an article stating Vitamin E can make cancer worse. But I think they are referring to synthetic form of Vitamin E and I believe Avemar is all natural so I think we will keep it.
    As far as the Curcumin, he is taking Truvani Curcumin supplements. He was taking 2 tables a day and now starting this week we have increased it to 3.
    Serving size 3 tables, Amount per serving
    Organic Turmeric Root Powder: 1350 mg
    Organic Turmeric Extract (Standardized for 95% Curcuminoids) : 150 mg
    Organic Black Pepper Powder: 10 mg
    In addition to this, we include turmeric in his food and daily juice. Should we increase this?
    As for Sulforaphane, he includes 2-3 broccoli and some broccoli sprouts everyday in his salad for lunch (we grow broccoli sprouts at home). Unfortunately, because of the chemo he couldn’t eat any more than this amount so hopefully now we can increase this but not sure what the correct dosage would be to make a difference?

    1. You might want to increase the curcumin a bit, yes. Also, you could try some different formulations: Here are a few of the most potent formulations on the market:

      Curcumin C3-complex® + Bioperine

      Good to hear you are growing your sprouts at home! You might want to combine with a supplement, it’s an easy way to increase the dosage.

      BroccoMax (Jarrows Formulas)
      Organic Broccoli Sprout Powder (Health Ranger)


        1. Since you’re already supplementing curcumin and sulforaphane, here are studies indicating possible synergistic antitumor activity with vitamin D and aspirin:

          The molecular mechanism of action of aspirin, curcumin and sulforaphane combinations in the chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer. pubmed/23404329

          The Prevention of a High Dose of Vitamin D or Its Combination with Sulforaphane on Intestinal Inflammation and Tumorigenesis in Apc1638N Mice Fed a High‐Fat Diet : “VD administration decreased tumor incidence and size, and the co-administration with SFN (HFDS) magnified the effects. Inflammation and Wnt-signaling are suppressed by VD. The addition of SFN decreased the activity of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and increased autophagy.”

  27. Hi Johan,
    This is very interesting, thank you for sending it. They were giving Mice 5000IU and not sure what the equivalent dosage would be for humans? 5000IU/day is what my dad is taking right now. The issue is that he is 79 and now has only one kidney. So we have to be very careful with the dosage and what we give him which make things challenging. His latest Vitamin D test value was (25-Hydroxy D, Total) 52 ng/mL and we were told to increase this to 60-80 ng/mL.
    As far as the aspirin, I have looked into it. Unfortunately, It is not recommended for people over 75 to take aspirin on a daily basis, Fortunately, looks like there is plenty of aspirin available in the plant world. I haven’t had the time to do the research on this but it is on my list. So I think if we can get enough Curcumin, Sulforaphane and aspirin included in his diet it would make a difference. Just need to figure out the amount which is the hardest part.

  28. Hi Tina, I understand, and that’s a good D value, maybe some extra magnesium could help raise active vitamin D. If he doesn’t feel like taking more capsules or if magnesium causes stomach issues, magnesium oil could be useful.

  29. Hello Daniel,
    I am new to your site and still absorbing all the fantastic information that you offer in just this one article. I have read some other things on developing protocols using repurposed drugs, but so far, your writing is the most clear to me and I appreciate that you offer specific amounts of supplements and repurposed drugs to use. Thank you very much! I think I will be visiting your site often in the future as I help my husband who has Stage 2 Follicular Lymphoma, Type 1, 2, and 3a.


  30. Hello Daniel,
    How long should someone be on this protocol of starving cancer before moving to the kill stage. For my husband, we will be trying IV Vitamin C. I have all the dosing recommendations now (except curcumin) but I’m still unsure of when to “pulse” the protocol in relationship to the IV Vit. C.

    Thank you,

    1. Hi Melissa,

      Can you please let me know what you want to use in starving stage and what you want to use in the kill stage? I do not usually thing in this framework but if I know what, how and for how long you intend to use, I can give you my opinion.

      Kind regards,

      1. Hello Daniel,
        Well, I am pretty new to this so please feel free to adjust my framework! Based on your Shut Down the Energy Engines chart, my husband has started the metformin and we are trying to find a way to access the Doxycicline or Atorvaquone (have found Plaquenil/Hydroxychloroquine–we are in Istanbul, Turkey) and can get Berberine at the end of the month.

        To reduce fermentation, we have Atorvastatin, high dose Omega 3, high dose EGCG, and high dose Quercetin. Perhaps we need another one?

        We also have Mebendazol.

        Once my husband starts this protocol, how long should we wait until we bring in the high dose vitamin C? And perhaps HBOT concurrently?

        Thank you for your kind help!

    1. Seen few online drug stores from Canada selling this drug ( worldwide too, prescription required) and sent an email to Auranofin manufacturer (Xediton, Canada today asking for local provider. Probably they sell it to the physicians directly as well (registration is needed Waiting for their reply.
      Meanwhile, lists several brand names and manufacturers for this drug. May be contacting them to get local dealer information might help.

      1. Unfortunately it’s out of stock I’m that pharmacy too..

        Daniel do you see any problem to add artemisin protocol in what you purpose in this tread?

        Thank you

        1. Artemisia or artemisinin will increase intracellular levels of ROS, and that is another way to inhibit glycolisis. Therefore, in my view this is an addition that would positively contribute to the approach proposed in the post above. It should also work well with chemo and with radiation since both are working via ROS generation.

          Kind regards,

          1. Hi Daniel
            in the scheme that you sent me about the prooxidant therapy figure EDTA IV I also have this compound, I put it before intravenous vitamin c the application would be also of half an hour before the radiotherapy ?
            kind regards

            1. Hi Marcos,

              Indeed, I would do the EDTA before Vitamin C. How you use this combo in respect to radio depends on how you can.

              Kind regards,

          2. Hi @Daniel,

            Thank you for you reply. Would be possible, in coherence with this approach, to use Fenbendazole the three days when you are off of artemisinin,?

            Warm regards


  31. Hi Daniel.
    I always put EDTA 4 before vitamin C IV, but would you put vit c IV before the radiotherapy, we should be very sure that it is pro-oxidant and it should be only 2 hours before the radiotherapy session which is difficult. I have put 2 sessions of low dose chemotherapy (IPT) Friday and Sunday with taxol.
    Kind Regards.

      1. Hi Marcos,

        The issue is when you want to mix the e.g. DMSO solution with water. It will precipitate. So you will need to use castor oil or kolliphor as they are using in intravenous Curcumin formulations. But it should be doable in that way. Just that we would need to mange potential allergic reactions typical to castor oil formulations. Usually it’s much more compared to what we use for Salinomycin formulations.

        Kind regards,

    1. Hi Marcos,

      The intracellular pro-oxidant action goes for days when that takes place. It’s not related to the half time of Vitamin C or others. So that gives freedom in timing it. I hope this helps.

      Kind regards,

      1. Hi Daniel.
        I believe that the mixture of polydatin and ethanol will not precipitate when mixed with NaCl, I am trying it and it seems that it does not do it, I will make a buffer of sorensen ph 8 so that it is more tolerable some opinion, excuse me for the insistence .
        Kind Regards.

        1. Hi Marcos,

          That is great. I did not check the solubility of Polydatin, but if you see it works it’s perfect. It sounds like it behaves in the same way as Phlorezin. Please always do small steps if you are moving into uncharted territory.

          Kind regards,

          1. Hi Daniel.
            This weekend there will be no radiation therapy for my wife until Monday, I have put in 2 DG elastomeric pumps after each session, the weekend I planned to put in two sessions of IPT (low dose chemotherapy with insulin potency) using paclitaxel. Any thoughts on that? Thank you for your immense kindness

  32. Dear Daniel,

    Hi, I’m new to your website.
    This is really a great post with invaluable information.

    I’ve enquiries, so hope that you or other friends in this website could share experience:
    About “Reduce Respiration”, both Metformin and Berberine are advised to be taken with meals to minimise the negative side effects based on information from other websites.
    Both Metformin and Berberine may also have side effects based on information from other websites.

    Q1: Should Metformin and Berberine be taken together in/after the same meal?

    You provided this information (No. 3 – follow same schedule) above to Nicole.
    Just worried to have unexpected negative side effects when taking both together.

    In addition, Omega-3 and Mebendazole should be taken with fatty food as well if not mistaken.

    That implies that we would need to take Metformin, Berberine, Omega-3, and Mebendazole AFTER each meal like breakfast/lunch/dinner.
    Q2: Should four of them be taken together in/after the same meal?

    Sorry for these enquiries as not familiar with these drugs & supplements, so not sure how they interact with each other.

    Thank you for your concern.

    1. Hi Kimster,

      Both Metformin and Berberine can have side effects indeed. Many, in order to avoid side effects they take them with food instead of before food. Although it is useful when possible to take before food, if the patients intends or expects to have more food or carbohydrates or sugar. Another way to reduce the potential side effects of metformin is to buy a Light version that is a slow release one.

      Answering your questions:

      1. Depends on the dose to be taken. If only e.g. 500mg Metformin is taken and 1000mg Berberine/day, I would take them separately: morning, afternoon and evening (500/500/500)

      2. Omega 3 – I would take it before food together with other supplements such as Curcumin or others to help their absorption. Mebendazole I would take with (fatty) food to increase absorption.

      3. The answer to your last question depends on the dose that will be taken. assuming a patient takes 500mg/day of Metformin, 1.5g Berberine/day, 200mg Mebendazole/day, 6g Omega 3/day I would take them like this:

      Morning 30min before breakfast: 2g Omega 3 with other supplements
      Morning with breakfast: 500mg Berberine

      Afternoon, 30 min before lunch: 2g Omega 3 with other supplements
      Afternoon with lunch: 500mg Berberine and 200mg Mebendazole

      Evening, 30min before dinner: 2g Omega 3 with other supplements
      Evening with dinner: 500mg Metformin

      This is just an example, but I hope is a good one to reflect how I would approach this.

      Kind regards,

  33. Hi, my next enquiry is about EGCG dosage.

    I read that the safe dosage of EGCG should be around 800 mg per day.

    For Example:
    – Based on safety assessment of green tea products, the European Food Safety Authority recently found that green tea supplements providing more than 800 mg of EGCG per day are linked with a greater risk of liver injury.

    For Reduce Fermentation, high dose EGCG is required.
    Q3: Any advice for safe high dose EGCG consumption?

    Thanks for your concern.

    1. Hi Kim,

      I agree with Johan on the statement below in response to your question. In addition I would point out that typically the supplement capsules available in the market contain about 50% EGCG. Therefore, more capsules will be required to achieve the 800 to 1000mg/day.

      While I would watch for the potential side effects of any drug or supplement (and always increase step by step the dose), personally I would not be worried about potential side effects when EGCG is used at a dose of a few grams/day. Here is a clinical study where patients received 4g/day and here is a positive case report of a man who folling this study also took 4g/day EGCG and had a complete remission

      Kind regards,

        1. Hi Inabari,

          For now, I would only go with 5-6 of those capsules/day maximum, and I will ask one of the authors if when they speak about 4g/day EGCG they refer to the who green tea extract or pure EGCG so that we clarify what they used. In that way we have a good reference point.

          I will let you know as soon as I have a response.

          Kind regards,

            1. Dear Inabari,

              I very quickly wrote and received a response from one of the authors of the EGCG successful case report paper. I asked if they used 4g of pure EGCG/day or that was a plant containing less EGCG. Here is the answer:

              “As stated in the case report, the patient took 4 grams of EGCG daily. This is twice the amount that would be found in 4 grams of a 50% EGCG containing supplement.
              I hope this answers your question.”

              This is very clear and supports my views that we better go with less supplements but higher dose, instead of a little of everything.

              Kind regards,

  34. Hi Kimster,

    There have been cases of liver injury at doses of aprox 800-1000mg but considering the enormous amount of green tea consumption worldwide, higher doses are safe for most people, that said it’s important to be aware of the possible risks so it can be monitored. As always start with a low dose and gradually increase, and watch for side effects. Supplements should only be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider

    But there are ways to boost bioavailibility and benefits of green tea:

    – Take/brew with filtered or bottled water (not tap water):

    -Take with some omega 3

    -Anti-cancer synergistic effects: “combined anti-angiogenic effect was better than that of curcumin or EGCG alone”

    1. Hey Johan, Daniel,

      Thanks for highlighting the need to consider the dosage of the supplements that are being consumed.

      Do you have any thoughts on how to monitor the possible side effects / risks of high EGCG, Quercetin consumption (for example, which liver markers to test for)?

      Are there age-related general recommendations for those who are much older (e.g. above 60 years old)?

      Thank you!

      1. Hi Buran,
        I’ll chime in since, oddly, I just happened to be looking at EGCG studies this morning. This is the study that indicated that doses of EGCG may elevate liver enzymes, specifically ALT, in a small subset of women when a dose of 843mg was used:
        Here is a meta-analysis in NAFLD patients showing that it normalized liver enzymes:
        This study used 300mg of EGCG for 12 months with no increase in liver enzymes:
        And finally, here is a meta-analysis showing an improvement in liver enzymes in NAFLD and a slight increase in healthy individuals:

        To answer your question- ALT would be the most impacted enzyme followed by AST (they are typically tested together). Liver enzyme elevation is rare, and usually mild, even at higher doses, and liver enzyme elevation associated with an adverse event is even more uncommon.

        1. Thanks Shanty for this information. I always try to check the liver metabolism of supplements and drugs since I try to be very careful with my mother’s hepatitis c. ALT is currently raised to 87 and I must be cautious

          kind regards

  35. Dear Daniel & johan,

    Hi, thank you very much for your swift reply – really appreciated!

    About Daniel’s reply,
    Firstly, would like to clarify this information:
    Although it is useful when possible to take before food, if the patients intends or expects to have more food or carbohydrates or sugar.
    Q: Does it mean that if the meal were expected to have MORE food or carbohydrates or sugar, then would be better to take BEFORE food?
    Otherwise, just take after meal.

    About buying a Light version that is a slow release one:
    Q: Any reference online purchase source of light version Metformin?
    – Which website could purchase it online?

    I noticed the following information – as Cimetidine and Aspirin are drugs that mentioned in this website.

    From this website:
    Stomach problem drugs
    Taking metformin with cimetidine, which is used to treat heartburn and other stomach issues, may increase your risk of lactic acidosis.
    If you’re taking metformin, your doctor may choose a different medication for you instead of cimetidine.

    From this website:
    Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.
    – Aspirin

    Thank you very much again for sharing the IMPORTANT EXAMPLE – as your readers could have some idea how to take the drugs & supplements introduced in the above great post.

    Thanks again!

    1. Dear Kimster,

      1. Yes, indeed: if I would expect more sugar to come in the meal, I would take drugs such as Metformin prior to that to lower the blood glucose spikes to come with food

      2. I have no specific reference but you should easily find that at pharmacies – you can ask/search for extended release version – I used to buy that from pharmacies in Germany, but it should be everywhere

      3. Cimetidine is one that I like a lot and I think it contribute to keep my wife safe from metastatsis of an extremely aggressive cancer, for years – however it increases the blood level of various drugs – so whenever introducing new drugs while on Cimetidine, we need to move step by step towards the target dose of the new drugs. Same with Metformin, I would start with lower dose and as long as there are no side effects I would move towards the target dose. In most of the cases should be no problem, but in some could be and one effect when combining Cim with Met is that the blood level of Met will be higher than intended and so it will be like we take a higher dose of Metformin (which can come with side effects as you mentioned).
      When Cim is taken with low dose Aspirin, I would not expect major side effects.
      Finally, we did used Cimetidine in combo with many drugs and supplements without issues but every person can react in a different way. Therefore, I would be anyway careful and always move in several steps towards the point where I want to go in terms of drug dose. and if a surgery is planned, I would make sure I would stop taking Cim before and one week after surgery.

      I am glad the example above helped.

      Kind regards,

  36. Dear Daniel,
    Hi, thank you very much for sharing the clinical study & positive case report information!
    EGCG is really important.

    Dear johan,
    Hi, thank you very much for sharing the information on ways to boost bioavailability and benefits of green tea!

    Also interested in the reply info for Inabari’s question.


    1. Hi Kimster,

      You are very welcome!

      I just sent an e-mail to the author of the paper to ask if what the patient took was pure EGCG or the typical ~50% purity food supplement. I will let you know when I have an answer.

      Kind regards,

  37. Dear Daniel,

    Thanks again for your swift reply!
    Would wait for the answer if available later.

    Just would like to SHARE that after reading your great post & relevant links (pH in Cancer…) recently,
    I noticed the following “quite new(Academic Press, 16 Jan 2020)” book entitled:

    An Innovative Approach to Understanding and Treating Cancer: Targeting pH: From Etiopathogenesis to New Therapeutic Avenues
    – By Tomas Koltai, Stephan J. Reshkin, Salvador Harguindey

    I just read the few available preview pages.

    Best regards,

    1. Dear Kimster,

      You are very welcome and thank you for the link. I do know the authors (great people) as we also published together. Here is a recent paper

      Regarding EGCG, I just received a very helpful response from one of the authors of the EGCG paper stating the following:

      “As stated in the case report, the patient took 4 grams of EGCG daily. This is twice the amount that would be found in 4 grams of a 50% EGCG containing supplement.”

      Kind regards,

      1. Hi Daniel
        sorry i didn’t know where to ask you a question,the radiotherapy has gone well at least the pain has practically disappeared,and we have been granted the combination of immunotherapy lenvima+pembrolizumab that is already approved in use for endometrial endometrioid cancer,without instability of microsatellites and that has had therapeutic benefits close to 70%.I want to thank you for your efforts in answering my ongoing questions, God bless you. In your article on anti PD-1 there is a link to an article that states some ways to reduce the side effects but it doesn’t work.
        Kind regards.

          1. Hi Marcos,

            There are two natural options for this:

            1. You can add it here as Johan said:
            2. You can add it as a comment here:

            I can also consider creating a main post that will be published on the home page, but in that case you would need to write your complete case report and I publish it as a “Visitor Story”. This would require more effort from your side, I think. In this case, you would need to firs sent me the content by e-mail and we check if it’s suitable.

            Kind regards,

  38. Dear Daniel,

    Oh I see, you know the authors – you guys are great people!

    Thank you very much for helping to get the following EGCG information:
    “As stated in the case report, the patient took 4 grams of EGCG daily. This is twice the amount that would be found in 4 grams of a 50% EGCG containing supplement.”

    From your previous reply,
    In addition I would point out that typically the supplement capsules available in the market contain about 50% EGCG.
    Therefore, more capsules will be required to achieve the 800 to 1000mg/day.

    For Example,

    If 1 capsule has 50% EGCG = 200 mg, then MANY capsules would be needed to achieve 3g or 4g per day.

    OR extract high potency EGCG supplement:–egcg-extract-high-potency-p338.aspx

    Any advice/suggestion for taking EGCG supplement?


    1. Dear Kimster,

      The statement of the source you mentioned is misleading as they first state:
      “670mg EgCG extract per capsule”
      and latter they state
      “670 mg Green Tea Extract standardized to more than 60% EgCG”

      That means that here you have capsules containing 60% EGCG. So in a capsule of 670 green tea extract you have about 400mg EGCG.

      The idea of Johan to open the capsules and add this to a smoothy is very good.

      Kind regards,

      1. Dear Daniel,

        Thank you very much for your reply with spending your valuable time to check that supplement product – not sure whether this supplement product is reliable or not as just google & found it.

        Maybe better choose supplement such as:
        Decaffeinated Mega Green Tea Extract Benefits
        Delivers over 325 mg of potent EGCG
        EGCG/Serving: 353.26 mg

        Q: Would this approach be OK?
        EGCG supplement capsules + drinking Matcha green tea (as supposed to contain more EGCG than tea-bag type green tea)

        But still wondering how to finally achieve total around 3g/day, if not around 4g/day – as really high dose.

        Just open the capsules to gather the total EGCG powder & then consume to achieve the high dose?

        Sorry for asking again as would like to clarify EGCG supplement consumption first – from the list of supplements that introduced in that great post.


        1. Hi, just thinking that the capsule is for EGCG to pass stomach acid (or something like that) to reach further for absorption if not mistaken

          If open capsule to use the EGCG powder, not sure whether would be good for absorption.

          Any comment to share about this as not sure about it.


    1. Dear johan,

      Thank you very much for willing to sharing information with very good idea.

      Please continue to advise & comment accordingly.

      For example, as asked above:
      Q: Would this approach be OK?
      EGCG supplement capsules + drinking Matcha tea (as supposed to contain more EGCG than tea bag green tea)

      Really appreciated!

      1. Hi Kimster

        Relying on tea bags for EGCG is a bit questionable as EGCG amount depends on when it was harvested, unless EGCG content is explicitly stated by manufacturer on tea bags box.

        1. Hi, asafsh.

          Thank you for your sharing – well noted about tea bag consumption issue.

          Would just consider:
          EGCG supplement capsules = Main
          Matcha green tea = Complement as could drink along the day


  39. Hi, next is about Quercetin,
    Application of Quercetin in pharmaceutical field is limited due to its poor solubility, low bioavailability, poor permeability and instability.
    The main advantages of using combination bromelain/quercetin capsules are cost and convenience.
    Taking them together is also a smart move because they enhance each other’s anti-inflammatory actions.
    In addition, bromelain seems to increase the absorption of quercetin into the bloodstream.

    Q: Any comment about taking Quercetin (main) with Bromelain supplement?
    – To be taken together with EGCG & Omega-3 because both Quercetin & Omega-3 could enhance EGCG absorption if not mistaken.

    Main Concern: Not sure whether Bromelain would affect this combination.

    For example:

    Please advise accordingly.


    1. alternatively one could get good amounts of quercetin from food, (red)onions being the best source, garlic, olive oil, apples …which are all good anticancer foods IMO.

    1. Dear Manuone,

      Thank you very much for sharing additional info about Quercetin as did not know about such option.

      Just would like to check with your experience: Would taking it 3 times per day be as effective as 3g/day of Quercetin (as recommended in the above great post)?


  40. Dear Manuone,

    Thank you very much for sharing additional info about Quercetin as did not know about such option.

    Just would like to check with your experience: Would taking it 3 times per day be as effective as 3g/day of Quercetin (as recommended in the above great post)?


  41. Given that 10 ml contain approximately 250 mg of quercetin taking 60 ml we would have 1500 mg in theory bioavailable at 90%. Orally we would only obtain 20% bioavailability

    1. Hi Manuel,

      I am planning to have such liposomal extracts in the supplement company. However, I would always make sure that liposomal products are taken in addition to the basic extracts and not as a replacement. For example: Let’s say our target is 3g of a specific extract. I would take 2.5g of the base extract and 0.5g of the liposomal version (or more if I want to hope for more). So, I see liposomal extracts as a “bonus”. For Curcumin (if the target dose is 7-8g/day) I would take maybe 5-6g of basic Curcumin (with piperine) and 1-2g of liposomal Curcumin. So I think, in general the rule should be ~80/20, taking ~80% base product and ~20% liposomal version of the target dose. Of course, I would always go up to the target dose, step be step. What do you think about this approach?

      Btw, Manuel, for the liposomal extracts that you had from your friends, what was the typical concentration you received? How many mg/ml liposomal solution? Thank you.

      Kind regards,

  42. Hi Daniel,

    The liposomes that I use occasionally do not carry “active” are “empty” phospholipid vesicles that, according to the theory, encapsulate other molecules taken together. It is not as safe an ablation as purely liposome assets but substantially improve the bioavailability of supplements and drugs. I strongly believe in the liposomes of Enoc Pharma because he is one of the pioneers in these formulations with more than thirty years of experience.
    For other molecules in liposomal form a very common presentation is 200-250 mg per 10 ml.
    kind regards

  43. Hi Daniel,
    Thank you for all the support and hope you are offering to all of us.
    My dad has been diagnosed with cholagiocarcinoma on September.He is at the moment on Gem/Cis and I am thinking to start this combo:
    -Metformin 1000 mg day
    -Atorvastatin 80 mg day
    -Doxycycline 100 mg day
    -hydroxychloroquine 200 mg
    -Dypiridamole 200 mg
    -Naltrexone 4.5 mg

    -Hydroxycitrate from Garcinia Cambogia 500mg 2/3 x daily
    -Melatonin 30 mg daily
    -Olive leaf extract 1000 mg
    -Brazil nuts 2/day
    -D-Mannose 1000 mg
    -Berberine 500 mg
    -Probiotics (10 billion)
    -Salospir (NSAID)
    -Quercetin 500 mg
    -Gymnema Sylvestre 500 mg
    -Ursolic acid (holy basil)400 mg
    -Chromium Picolinate 500mg
    -Turkey tall 3000 mg
    -Alpha lipoid acid (R form) 600 mg day
    -Baking soda (tea spoon)
    -Shark liver oil 1000 mg
    -Milk thistle 1000 mg
    -Black seed oil (Nigella Sativa) 1-2 Tsp
    -Resveratrol concentrate 1000 mg
    -Sea buckthorn omega 7 500 mg
    -glucosamine sulfate 1500 mg/day
    -EGCG 400/500 mg
    -Celebrex 100mg day of chemo

    What is your opinion on that?Anything you would add or skip.Is there something that should be avoided on chemo days?
    What do you think about adding IVC before chemo?

    Thank you,

    1. Dear Ioanna,

      Thanks you for your msg. Designing the treatment as a function of Chemo implies more discussions and if you like we can try to arrange a Skype call (no cost) to go faster through that, although I am extremely busy – but I understand the need. Please send me an e-mail in case you like to arrange the call and propose a time that is aligned with Amsterdam time-zone.

      A fast feedback on your list:
      – The repurposed drugs look good but because of the literature added at the end of this response, I would consider adding Mebendazole and Cimetdine (cim needs special attention related to interaction with other drugs).
      – Th list of supplements looks good but some of them such as EGCG and Quercetin I would increase the dose or just stop them as I think the dose is too small.
      – I would avoid Alpha Lipoic Acid during chemo and only use maybe 7 days after chemo session and stop some days before.

      Here is some relevant literature indicating the relevance of Cimetidine, Valproic Acid, Retinoic Acid, Lovastatin, Metformin, Hydroxychloroquine, Ivermectin, Mebendazole:

      Potential candidate treatment agents for targeting of cholangiocarcinoma identified by gene expression profile analysis

      overexpression of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) and hexokinase indicating a hyper-glycolytic phenotype

      These results suggest that cimetidine has the potential to be an effective antitumor agent for the treatment of CCA.

      In case FGFR inhibitor is used, Metformin (mTOR inhibitor) will extend the effectiveness of that

      Chloroquine exerts anti-metastatic activities under hypoxic conditions in cholangiocarcinoma


      Quinoline-based clioquinol and nitroxoline exhibit anticancer activity inducing FoxM1 inhibition in cholangiocarcinoma cells

      Metformin Exerts Antiproliferative and Anti-metastatic Effects Against Cholangiocarcinoma Cells by Targeting STAT3 and NF-ĸB


      Kind regards,

  44. hello daniel
    i was diagnosed with testicular cancer and recently I had SBRT treatment for my lung nodules. its been a month
    to increase the I took metformin(1g),niacin(5g),celecoxib,valproic acid,ozone,aspirin,propanolol and dipyridamole.
    now my markers came to normal and I will have my scans after 2 months.
    I’ve seen radiation works by breaking double and single-strand breaks which could be repaired later.
    do you know what things I can do to keep myself in remission?
    I am not taking any anti-oxidant right now.
    I thought of giving a try for IV C(50G)+sulfasalazine+artisunate+feverfew (pro-oxidant)+bcomplex+metformin
    moreover I’ve been hearing role of epigenetics in testicular cancer but I could not understand DNMT AND HDAC inhibitors mechanism how they work in solid tumors.
    i have access to valproic acid and I’ve tried it but i don’t know doses and how long shall I continue its intake.
    and my tumor express cytokeratin,SALL4,CD30 & GLYPICAN(weak) and are immunonegative for EMA and TTF-1
    and i was reading about RAD51 which slows the repair mechanism any strategy you have in mind which could help me ?

    1. Hi Kuldeep,

      Great to hear that the marker is down .
      Radiation indeed works by directly and indirectly inducing DNA damage. Indirectly by generating reactive oxygen species as discussed here Sounds like you used a good combo to support the radiation.

      Regarding your question on what can we do to stay in remission, this is what I would consider:
      1. adjust diet and life style in ways know to reduce inflammation
      2. use some re purposed drugs and supplements known to help

      The firs one is one that I am sure you have now a good idea about what is essentially, so below I will shortly address the second point:

      1. anti inflammatory drugs and supplements
      2. drugs and supplements with a anti metastasis actions
      3. anti cancer stem cell
      4. cycles with anti-parasite and anti-viral action – this because it may be that the origin of cancer is of parasitic/viral form

      Other categories that could be addressed are:

      5. drugs and supplements addressing metabolic aspects
      6. drugs and supplements with known direct anti cancer action
      7. drugs and supplements supporting organs
      8. drugs and supplements supporting the immune system

      There are many that could be discussed here, but 3 drugs that I would consider adding as a preventive measure, at least for a while, are:

      1. Aspirin (anti inflammatory)
      2. Cimetidine (anti metastasis)
      3. Metformin (anti cancer stem cells)

      Anti-inflammatory supplements that I would consider are Curcumin, Omega 3, Olive Leaf Extract, Boswellia serrata. For immune system I would add mushrooms, Vitamin D, probiotics.

      In general, I recommend that you go through this summary and for your awareness is good if you find time to read this post

      Anti-parasitic drugs and supplements that I would cycle from time to time are (1-3 weeks cycle): e.g. Coloidal Silver, Niclosamide, Mebendazole, Fenbendazole.

      I hope this helps.

      Kind regards,

    1. On the same article it reads…. “s. We hypothesize that 2 years of fasting and ketogenic diet therapy metabolically weakened the neoplastic thymic cell component of the thymoma, “settingthe stage” for immune activation and extreme energy restriction to destroy the majorityof cancer cells during both relapses, while prednisone-induced apoptosis eradicated theremaining lymphocytic component of the thymoma during the second relapse. This caseis unique in that a metabolic-based fasting and ketogenic diet intervention was used
      as the primary management strategy for a metastatic cancer in the absence of surgery,
      chemotherapy, or radiotherapy, culminating in a near-complete regression. Nearly 3 years
      after being diagnosed with inoperable metastatic cancer, our patient shows no signs of
      disease and leads a full and active life….”
      The patient was on ketogenic diet and fasted for 7 days (fluid only fast) every 1-2 months.
      This intervention is interesting for stem cells

  45. Good afternoon friends

    My name is Jun and I live in Perth, Australia. I’m currently taking care of my mum who has been battling Stage 4 NSCLC for the past 3 years (metastases in liver and spine). She has previously received Erlotinib and radiation therapy to lung and liver, and is currently stable on Osimertinib monotherapy.

    I stumbled across this incredible website a couple of months ago, and it has seriously opened my eyes to the possibilities of coupling alternative treatments with the traditional medicine prescribed by the oncologist. For a long time, I have been working on the assumption that the only options available to us going forward were toxic oncology regimes, so this has certainly changed my perspective significantly. I have been trying to absorb as much information as I can in order to achieve a level of comprehension where I can confidently move forward with a coherent strategy. However, given the poor prognosis of this type of disease, I always feeling like I’m running out of time as each day passes. That is why I am reaching out to you all for support and advice.

    I have already received tremendous insight from Daniel both on this website and via email, which has helped fast-track my development of a personalised anti-cancer strategy. My initial strategy is to target the metabolism of cancer cells whilst minimising collateral damage to healthy cells. My primary focuses are:
    • Reducing cholesterol levels
    • Inhibiting fermentation
    • Inhibiting respiration
    Supporting focuses to help contain the cancer and tackle from alternate angles are:
    • Inhibiting metastases
    • Inhibiting angiogenesis
    • Reducing inflammation
    • Supporting immune system

    I have put together the following daily cocktail regime. We are still in the process of purchasing all the drugs/supplements, and will slowly work up to the target dosages identified below. Whilst working through this list, I have been paying close attention to the side effects and in particular the demand on the liver in processing these drugs/supplements, given the presence of metastases there (which is why some of the dosages are lower than recommended on this site).

    The intent is for this strategy to form the initial phase of “weakening” the cancer cells, to be taken on a daily basis. I intend to do more research on ways to trigger apoptosis and incorporate a kill cycle into the strategy in the near future.

    • Simvastatin 40mg (lower cholesterol)
    • Mg Gluconate 500mg (lower cholesterol)
    • Honokiol 1500mg (lower cholesterol, inhibit fermentation, inhibit respiration)
    • Berberine 1000mg (reduce cholesterol, inhibit fermentation, inhibit respiration, inhibit metastases, support immune system, inhibit angiogenesis)
    • Quercetin 2000mg (lower cholesterol, inhibit fermentation, reduce inflammation)
    • Melatonin 10mg (lower cholesterol, inhibit metastases, reduce inflammation, support immune system)
    • Aspirin 75mg (lower cholesterol, inhibit fermentation, inhibit metastases, reduce inflammation)
    • Omega 3 3000mg (lower cholesterol, inhibit fermentation, support immune system)
    • Dipyridamole 400mg (lower cholesterol, inhibit metastases)
    • EGCG 600mg (inhibit fermentation)
    • Resveratrol 400mg (inhibit fermentation, reduce inflammation)
    • Sulforaphane 35mg (inhibit fermentation, inhibit metastases)
    • Curcumin 4800mg (inhibit fermentation, reduce inflammation)
    • Astralagus 1000mg (inhibit metastases, reduce inflammation, support immune system)
    • Cimetidine 800mg (inhibit metastases, inhibit angiogenesis)
    • Mebendazole 200mg (inhibit metastases, reduce inflammation, promote apoptosis)
    • Vitamin D3 4000IU (reduce inflammation, support immune system)
    • Liver Guard 810mg (support immune system)
    • Zinc 50mg (support immune system)
    • Probiotics (support immune system)
    • Soy isoflavones 135mg (support immune system)

    I have also reviewed the following and excluded them from the list for the time being. However, let me know if you feel my assumptions are incorrect or their value warrants further review:
    • Metformin – My mum has tried this before and felt very nauseous
    • Doxycycline – Potential adverse impact on gut flora
    • Itraconazole – Potential adverse impact on gut flora and demand on liver
    • HCA – Demand on liver and cause stomach issue (my mum has a history of acid reflux)
    • Vitamin E – Benefit of attenuating SREBP2 can be achieved through parsley in natural form
    • Fenbendazole – Already using Mebendazole
    • Niacin – Side effects may worsen when taken with Zinc, unclear on benefits
    • Bisphosphonates – Toxicity concerns and difficulty finding doctor to administer IV for now
    • Disulfiram – Already taking multiple Zinc ionophores (EGCG, quercetin, curcumin)
    • Valproic acid – Sulforaphane also performs the primary anti-cancer effect of inhibiting HDAC1

    I would very much appreciate your thoughts on:
    1) Whether this is a coherent strategy or if there are any contradictions in the above list
    2) Any additional drugs/supplements that I should be considering to enhance the strategy
    3) Whether the dosages are sufficient to achieve the desired anti-cancer mechanism

    Feel free to respond with however long or short a reply you wish – every tidbit of information is valuable to me. Also feel free to point out any inaccuracies in my notes above, as it is the only way for me to learn.

    This is not the final product, but simply the starting point as I continue to look into other drugs/supplements. Thank you in advance, and I hope to return the favour in the near future when I’m more progressed in my research and understanding of this field.

    Hope you all have a great weekend with your families.


    1. Hi Jun, sorry to hear about your mother. I think valproic acid will likely be better at hdac inhibition compared to sulforaphane, could be a good combination though, curcumin also fits into this strategy. I’d take a little more SULF(with adequate amounts of selenium), maybe add fresh broccoli sprouts a few times a week, also see if you can increase CURC. Maybe add Ursolic acid to this combination. Take the green tea extract with lemon/citrus juice.

      About niacin, here’s a south korean clinical trial about the use of nicotinamide(2x500mg/day) in combination with Gefitinib or Erlotinib:

      Young-Chul Kim, MD, PhD
      [email protected]

      Best regards,


    2. Thank you for your prompt replies Johan and Zdenek.
      – I will look to increase the quantity of SULF and curcumin in the daily dose, to boost the effect of HDAC inhibition. Will also try to increase melatonin levels provided we encounter no adverse effects.
      – I will add Ursolic acid, bioperine, Chaga and alpha lipoic acid to my list of drugs/supplements to research
      – The clinical trial for nicotinamide seems very relevant for my mum’s condition. I will review my notes on niacin and look more in depth regarding the use for lung cancer.

      Much appreciated for the information, both 🙂


        1. Thank you Johan. My limited interpretation of that article is that niacin upregulates 15-PGDH which has an anti-inflammatory effect in keeping prostaglandin and COX-2 levels low. I will look into the supplement a bit more.

  46. Hi Daniel,

    Excellent article btw. I wondered if you had any thoughts on the efficacy of the Syrosingopine/metformin combo vs diclofenac/metformin combo. From my research I feel like Syrosingopine might have the edge but is much harder to source and much more expensive! Just wondered if anyone had any views or experiences?

    1. Hi Kholl,

      Thank you. I think both Syro and Diclofenac have good potential. The challenge with Diclo is the short halftime, so we would need to take it more often during the day. I would chose the one that is more accessible. However, as I mentioned in the article, I would not only go for one but I would add more to address fermentation, specifically the end steps of that.

      Kind regards,

  47. Dear Daniel,

    Thank you for sharing all these usefull information we need.
    My mother has diagnosed with pleural mesothelioma.We are now intend to start radiotherapy and she takes
    curcumin,genistein,turkey tails and a mix of herbs( pau d’arco,cumanda,noni,barberry,cats claw).
    i want her to start taking all these supplements and repurposed drugs you suggest.
    Do these herbs and supplements which take now interfere with the ones you suggest??and regarding radiotherapy does she continue taking all of them?(radiotherapy is 21 consecutive days apart from weekends).
    Thank you in advance.

    Kind regards,

    1. Dear John,

      Thank you for your question.

      Since you are going for radio, I think would be best that you also read this post
      In this post I mentioned the following:
      – strong anti-oxidants like NAC, ALA, etc. should not be taken 6-7 days before and after chemo;
      – anti-oxidants known to have pro-oxidant effects (like Quercetin, Curcumin, etc.) should not be taken 2-3 days before and after chemo
      – pro-oxidants or others widely known to bring good benefit to radio/chemo can be continued during chemo/radio. Examples are: Omega 3, Aremisia Annua, Silver Solution.

      Most of the supplements you mentioned go into the 2nd category above. Some, such as Cat’s Claw could be even considered as part of the 3rd category

      I would also add some of the repurposed drugs mentioned there and expected to help the effectiveness of radio, such as Auranofin.

      Please use “mesothelioma” as a keyword in the search function of the Blog and separately in the search function of the Forum and you will find more ideas for mesothelioma addressed in various discussions, such as this idea regarding PhenylButyrate

      Kind regards,

  48. Hey Daniel,

    Wonderful article. Really helped give me some needed perspective.
    I have a couple of questions for you regarding my journey, if that’s alright. Currently battling Stage IV malignant melanoma since April 2020.

    Initially, I was diagnosed with Stage II melanoma in 2012 – in a mole and 1 lymphnode. Only required surgery, and was cancer free until recurrence in 2016. Only in 1 lymphnode again, deemed Stage III. Had surgery and took Immunotherapy (Ipilimumab) for 1 year as adjuvant therapy. I was all clear until this recurrence in April of this year. Stage IV diagnosis with scans showing metastasis in my liver, chest, and knee/hip bones. PD-L1 Negative, BRAF status normal. Underwent combination immunotherapy (Ipilimumab and Nivolumab) for 3 cycles. Had stage 4 liver toxicity/hepatitis as a side effect, which required stopping treatment and immune suppressors (Tacrolimus, prednisolone and mycophenolatmofetil). Liver health/function is now normal but I am still tapering off of tacrolimus.

    Initially, my scans after the immunotherapy showed no cancer in my liver or knee (yay!), however one new metastases in my lungs, and one in spine/upper vertebrae. Last scan after that showed growth in those 2 areas as well (42mm and 35mm in size currently).
    Due to my liver reaction, and still being on the tacrolimus, I’m not a candidate for immunotherapy or any immune-based trials currently. As a stop-gap while we continue to taper off the tacrolimus, I am to begin chemotherapy treatment (temozolomide), with radiation treatment as an option should I begin to feel any discomfort in my spine or lungs.

    I’m in the beginning stages of implementing my own protocol, attempting to support the chemo as much as possible, while supporting my body as well. Currently preparing for, or already participating in the following:

    Additional Treatment alongside Chemo:
    -Hyperthermia treatments
    -Care Oncology protocol
    Daily Supplements:
    -Vit C 1000mg
    -Vit D (20 mcg in tablet, and 5000 IU drop)
    -Melatonin 1mg
    -Magnesium 400mg
    -Camucamu powder 3g
    -Chlorella Powder 3g
    -Amalaki Powder 2.5g
    -Raw food plant-based diet (daily use of tumeric/garlic/black pepper/cayenne pepper/curry powder/nutritional yeast) with reduced wheat intake and intermittent fasting
    -20-30 ounces of carrot juice a day (occasionally mix in fruit/celery/beets/etc)
    -chaga mushroom tea daily

    As I begin chemo tomorrow, I’m wondering if I should be avoiding anti-oxidants in my diet, for example the daily carrot juice, daily consumption of berries, etc? Are there additional supplements you might recommend I look into with regards to melanoma and chemo? I saw read your article around CBD and TMZ, would that be worth considering?

    Regarding your article on timing of medication, I found TMZ on the databank site (, but I didn’t understand how to do the calculations on when it’s best to take in the day. Half life is 1.8 hours.

    For what it’s worth, I’m currently located in Denmark.
    Very much appreciated,

    1. Dear Austin,

      I am glad you appreciate the content on this website. There are a lot of relevant treatments for melanoma addressed in this website, for example:
      – DCA: Long-term stabilization of metastatic melanoma with sodium dichloroacetate
      DCA was discussed here
      – Zinc and Zinc ionophores
      – Thymus vulgaris
      – Mistletoe

      As you now move towards TMZ, this post will be relevant
      Your question about TMZ timing requires research to identify the best timing – please try to follow the logic discussed there and in the comments of that article – we did this exercise for other drugs.

      Regarding the support of TMZ, here are a few more points to consider:
      – Celecoxib is an anti inflamatory medication that is known to reduce the amount of the MGMT reparing enzymes, and with that help Temozolomide be more effective
      – Metformin and
      – hydroxychloroquine: Phase I trial of hydroxychloroquine with dose-intense temozolomide in patients with advanced solid tumors and melanoma

      If I would be you, I would avoid antibiotics at this point (Doxycicline in COC protocol that you are considering). Instead, I would focus on adding Probiotics. Imunotherapies are very effective in Melanoma and the immune system is highly dependant on the gut-bacteria which could be very much affected by antibiotics. So latter when you would want to switch back to immunotheraphies they may not work as well as before if you use antibiotics at this point. I like antibiotic action against cancer but not in the context when Imunotherapies are core treatments.

      I would probably continue with juices. There are multiple supplements that I would consider. Out of those, as you know Curcumin is the one that is the first to consider in every cancer type.

      I hope this helps.

      Kind regards,

  49. Hello to Daniel and everyone who is going through this very hard fight against cancer. I am truly happy & thankful people like Daniel & Jane McLelland share their knowledge & Insight in this very Difficult Subject of Cancer..

    I would Like to Introduce My Situation.

    My Name is Niko and I am on Dialysis for some Years now. But I take good care of myself, I diet, excersise , doing my Masters in engineering, and generaly keep my health problem as small as possible in my life and always avoid to be a burden or be miserable & whiny about my health problem.

    My mother was diagnosed with colorectal cancer in Jan ’18. She had surgery removing the part of the intestine with tumors, spleen and some lymph nodes.

    She has KRAS, BRAF, PIC3CA, TP53 mutations.

    Since then her cancer slowly progresed, we have been through may different chemotherapies & targeted therapy regimens ( capecitabine,oxaliplatin, folfiri, bevacizumab, trifluridine, tipiracil, cyramza, stivarga) with no luck. The cancer is steadily progressing with new mets to liver, lungs, spine and Brain.

    We were recently approved to start immunotherapy(keytruda) so we will be starting that very soon.

    I have read many articles and comments here By Daniel , and the book by Jane McLelland. So since my mothers cancer is growing and things are rather serious,we recently completed radiotherapy to the spine and brain, I have started a protocol of repurposed drugs & supplements as mentioned here for Her. But I am a bit confused as to the dosages of some of these ( metformin, hydroxychloroqine, loratadine).

    I am very confused and scared.Dialysis takes up time & energy from me and Mom keeps getting weaker and sicker her cancer is advanced but I love Her and want to save Her. I feel lost with so much information and some contradictions. I need some advice on how to proceed. Any Help and Guidance would be extremely helpful & appreciated.

    I have ordered many supplements & off label medicines , also as a member of Janes McLellands group, looked at some protocols of people who succesfully beat colorectal cancer with mets into remission, and made a protocol for her, but I am not sure if its strong enough.

    I also ordered a lingans capsule, berberine & honokiol from MCS formulas, hoping to incorporate them into the protocol too.

    This is the Protocol:

    Off-Label Medications:
    Metformin 1000mg. 2xday ( breakfast, dinner)
    Atorvastatin 40mg. 2xday (breakfast, bedtime)
    Cimetidine 400mg, 2xday ( breakfast, dinner)( always take 2 hours before atorvastatin to avoid interaction)
    diphyridamole 75mg. 2xday ( breakfast, dinner)
    Mebendazole 100mg. 2x day ( breakfast, dinner)
    Hydroxychloroqine 200 mg. 1/2x2day ( half pill breakfast , half pill dinner)
    doxycycline 100mg . 1xday ( lunch, with tbsp olive oil)
    Vit.D3 4000IU +K245μg. 2xday ( breakfast, dinner)
    Baby Aspirin 100mg. 1xday (breakfast, with atorvastatin)
    loratadine 10mg. 1xday (bedtime)( 2 weeks on , 2 weeks off)


    Berberine 500 mg. 3xday( breakfast, lunch, dinner)
    Garcinia Cambogia 1500mg. 2x day (breakfast, Dinner)
    Qunol Curcumin complex 1000mg. 3x day ( breakfast, lunch , Dinner)
    MCT capsules 1000mg. 2xday (breakfast, Lunch)
    Ursolic Acid 400mg. 2xday( breakfast, dinner)
    Vitamin B complex 1x day (Breakfast, to stop depletion by metformin)
    Saccharomyces boulardii 250mg 1xday ( Wake)
    Omega 3 Fish Oil Potency 1650mg Omega 3 with 990mg EPA & 660mg per day 3x per day( breakfast, lunch , dinner)
    Resveratrol 1000mg day 2xday (breakfast, lunch taken with quercentin 500 mg)
    Quercentin 500mg 2xday ( breakfast, Lunch)
    Black Seed Oil 1250 mg 1x day ( lunch)
    Glucosamine Sulphate 1500mg 1xday ( bedtime)
    Lycopene 100 mg 1xday (lunch)
    Green tea Extract 800mg 9x day ( 5x breakfast, 3xlunch, 1xdinner)
    Milk Thistle 500mg. 2x day ( 2x lunch)
    Chromium PIcolinate 1000mg. 1x day ( breakfast)

    Im Not sure about the dosages on mebendazole, diphyridamole and hydroxychoroqine. Ive read that mebendazole & Hydroxychloroqine should be taken alternately 3 days on , 4 days off, also the dosages vary alot too. some also say to take them continuously and in dosages in the range of 500mg-1g (mebendazole). which is the best dose for advanced cancer, but also safe?

    She also takes pain medication , so shes not in alot of pain ( buvera 70mg patch, lyrica 50mg 2xday, Minitram 2-25mg 1xday, xanax 0.5mg 1xbedtime)

    My mom is in bed all the time, is weak , rarely gets up anymore, and needs help to walk to the bathroom. She sleeps alot and eats little, Its too dificult for her to take all these pills and I see her getting weaker and weaker.

    I have been doing this protocol for a month now, but havent gotten any ct scans yet to see any differences.
    However her last blood tests came out generaly well. everything was in the normal range, except lactic acid , which dropped 23% from 555, to 421 U/L
    CEA rise from 6.93 to 7.40 ng/ml
    CA 19-9 rise from 51.7 to 123.0 U/ml
    CA 125 rise from 16.3 21.4 U/ml

    CA 15-3 dropped 38.4 to 27.1 U/ml
    CRP dropped 4.60 to 3.20 mg/dl
    Triglycerides dropped from 285 to 167 mg/dl
    Cholesterol dropped slightly from 284 to 225 mg/dl
    LDL Chol dropped from 189 to 137 mg/dl
    HDL Chol rose from 32 to 55mg/dl

    I think I am moving in the right ditrection, but these reults seem that maybe I am not giving enough of something, or giving something that counteracts with another element.
    What am I doing wrong? should I increase the dosages on the off-label meds? should I add something more powerful?

    I have also recieved from MCS formulas honokiol and mega flaxseed lingans , as well as chrysin, melatonin 10mg, policosanol 20 mg, life extension super selenium complex, bromelain 3000 GDU.

    What should I do to maximize the treatment? I feel somewhat lost in the maze of medicines & supplements and feel times running out..

    Thank You all for LIstening to my Post, Any advice is welcome

    1. Dear Nick,

      I am so sorry to hear about all these challenges and hope your mom will be better and better.

      I have a several points to make:

      A. here is a response I wrote to someone asking for ideas to increase the effectiveness of antiPD1/PDL1, that could help:

      I think the best now is to think what are the ways to
      – increase the chance for effectiveness and
      – address a potential first growth triggered by immunotherapy
      – be ready to work against side effects if they occur

      In order to increase the chance of effectiveness here is what I would consider:

      1. Around the tumors the area is more acidic and this makes the immune system by less effective. Therefore, we want to make this space more alkaline. Here I discussed why this happens
      At the same link I discussed various approaches that can be used to reduce the acidity around the tumors.
      However here are a few easy approaches to do that:
      – Use Basentabs food supplements that are strongly alkaline as indicate on the package
      – Or we could go to a cancer clinic near you and ask them to perform Natrium Bicarbonate intravenous prior to Immunotherapy
      – Or we could use DCA as discussed here
      The daily dose will be about 1g/day and it can be ordered from here
      DCA is very bio-available so it should be no issue to be absorbed. And the same with Basentabs.
      – Taking Lanzoprazole 40mg/day taken 30 min before any meal. This is an over the counter drug in many countries.

      2. Increase the immune system activity using the following:
      – Coriolus or Agaricus Blazei 3x400mg/day or Reishi mushroom extract, 2.5g per day
      – Vitamin D3 in higher doses prior to the Keytruda IV. A suitable dose during those days would be at least 10.000ui/day
      – Atorvastatin 40mg/day increase effectiveness of immuno-therapy by activating T-cell

      3. Reduce tumor hypoxia
      – Metformin 1g/day – Here is a clinical trial showing that Metformin may increase the effectiveness of anti PD1/PDL1 like Keytruda

      In some cases, it is known that immuno therapy can trigger first a growth of the tumors and after that a reduction. In order to do that, it is best to use

      1. angiogenesis inhibitors:
      – Aspirin 100mg/day – it has angio-genesis and anti inflammatory properties
      – Fenbendazole 222mg/day – has also angio-genesis inhibition properties (just follow the protocol of Joe 4day ON and 3 days OFF)
      – Silver solution – made at home as discussed in the article on my page on silver from the reference I added here

      2. anti inflammatory drugs and supplements
      – Black Cumin Oil – 1-3g/day
      – Curcumin – 3-7g/day
      – Omega 3 – 3g/day
      – Olive leaf extract – 1g/day – very strong anti-inflammation, can also be found as a solution, not only capsules

      Finally, I would make sure I have the following at home to support the organs in case of auto-immune reactions

      – Milk Thistle – 1g/day
      – Alpha Lipoic Acid – 1-2g/day if needed
      – Quercetin 3g/day if needed

      Here is a clinical trial plan that is trying to achieve the same, but it is less intense compared to the proposal above:

      B. Second point I want to make is that I would stop Doxycycline if planning to go for immunotherapy

      C. Regarding the list of supplements and drugs used, here is my feedback:

      This is the Protocol:

      Off-Label Medications:
      Metformin 1000mg. 2xday ( breakfast, dinner) – maybe 2g/day could be too high dose and would make your mom feeling less energy
      Atorvastatin 40mg. 2xday (breakfast, bedtime)
      Cimetidine 400mg, 2xday ( breakfast, dinner)( always take 2 hours before atorvastatin to avoid interaction) – I would take it after and not before to reduce interactions
      diphyridamole 75mg. 2xday ( breakfast, dinner)
      Mebendazole 100mg. 2x day ( breakfast, dinner)
      Hydroxychloroqine 200 mg. 1/2x2day ( half pill breakfast , half pill dinner)
      doxycycline 100mg . 1xday ( lunch, with tbsp olive oil) – as mentioned I would stop this in preparation for immunotherapy
      Vit.D3 4000IU +K245μg. 2xday ( breakfast, dinner)
      Baby Aspirin 100mg. 1xday (breakfast, with atorvastatin)
      loratadine 10mg. 1xday (bedtime)( 2 weeks on , 2 weeks off)


      Berberine 500 mg. 3xday( breakfast, lunch, dinner) – this together with Metformin may be too much – so I would really reduce metformin to 1g/day
      Garcinia Cambogia 1500mg. 2x day (breakfast, Dinner)
      Qunol Curcumin complex 1000mg. 3x day ( breakfast, lunch , Dinner)
      MCT capsules 1000mg. 2xday (breakfast, Lunch)
      Ursolic Acid 400mg. 2xday( breakfast, dinner)
      Vitamin B complex 1x day (Breakfast, to stop depletion by metformin)
      Saccharomyces boulardii 250mg 1xday ( Wake)
      Omega 3 Fish Oil Potency 1650mg Omega 3 with 990mg EPA & 660mg per day 3x per day( breakfast, lunch , dinner)
      Resveratrol 1000mg day 2xday (breakfast, lunch taken with quercentin 500 mg) – bot sure if required
      Quercentin 500mg 2xday ( breakfast, Lunch)
      Black Seed Oil 1250 mg 1x day ( lunch)
      Glucosamine Sulphate 1500mg 1xday ( bedtime)
      Lycopene 100 mg 1xday (lunch)
      Green tea Extract 800mg 9x day ( 5x breakfast, 3xlunch, 1xdinner) – how much EGCG is inside?
      Milk Thistle 500mg. 2x day ( 2x lunch)
      Chromium PIcolinate 1000mg. 1x day ( breakfast)

      If there are too many capsules and I would need to reduce, I would make suer to keep Curcumin, EGCG, Berberine. If possible Milk Thistle and HCA.
      If Honokiol is used, is best to be taken prior to, or with Omega 3 at the same time.

      D. Regarding repurposed drugs, have you seen the first case report discussed here on colorectal cancer

      I hope this helps and if there are any other questions, please let me know.

      Kind regards,

      1. Yes Hello Daniel

        Thank you so much for replying to my post I had some issues and couldnt answer sooner. I felt a bit lost giving all these supplements but not so sure which ones are more effective for this particular cancer.

        I have decreased metformin to 500mg x2day, along with the other reccomendations you gave me. 

        I give her resveratrol(blocks/targets glutaminolysis)  because I had read it synergises with quercetin, curcumi,egcg and ursolic acid.  

        I thought grapeseed extract opc & resveratrol were the same thing.

        I thought the green tea tablets were a bit too much, however I read the information behind the bottle and it says 35mg egcg per 2 tablets. I think this is too low and will be replacing them soon with one from mcs formulas with a proper percentage of egcg. 

        I read the case study of complete remission of colorectal cancer with Ibersartan (aprovel)  but since my mother has a bit low blood pressure already, Im hesitant to use it. It may make her blood pressure too low. Im wondering if I give her 75mg 2xday it might be safer.

        In the past 4 days I have added a new addition to the protocol, and that is Liposomal vitamin c. I give her 6000mg every afternoon in liquid form.

        It is my understanding that in conjunction with modifying the alkalinity around the tumor, I should also Increase ROS as much as possible to induce apoptosis, for this reason I have read many articles about the ROS-increasing qualities of feverfew(parthenolide).

        On their website, The Therapeutics Reserch Institute has a free e-book with  detailed protocols for fighting various cancers of different degrees & Severity , and has many simillar points with Your research to and Janes McLelland’s Protocol too. 

        In there it states 2.25 gr x2day feverfew dissolved in warm milk or cream. since feverfew is insoulable in water, it extracts & dissolves in  fatty cream. I give her this in a cup of coffee with mct oil in the morning, and before bed with a bit of cacao, I do this because feverfew has a very strange taste, most people would find it not drinkable, but in coffee, you wouldn’t really notice.

        Mom has been getting a bit better the past few days, She now gets up almost by herself, goes to the bathroom with minimal help , watches tv on the sofa, Is MUCH more alert & coherent. and sits at the kitchen table when its time to eat.  Im not sure what exactly has contributed more to this improvment, but she feels better now, sleeps all night without interuption, without the need for xanax, and is much more functional.

        I will be adding DIM and colloidal silver in liquid form as well, as it looks so promising, and thank you for pointing that out to me.

        We will be having full blood & Urine tests again soon, and I also think she will have CT scans in her stomach & chest area too. 

        I hope we have some positive results again this time, especialy with the liposomal vitc & feverfew.

        Again Much thanks Daniel, I admire all the incredible work youve done so we can all fight this difficult disease. I am very grateful for your Guidance 🙂 

        Thank you


  50. -UPDATE- 04/12/20

    Hello Daniel and thank you for the kind words and valuable advice.

    Unfortunately , I had bad news.
    Moms Bloodwork & ct scans came back. and there not good.

    Her CEA increased from 7.40, to 71.40 ng/ml
    her CA19-9 increased, from 123 to 402 U/ML
    and her ct scans showed significant growth of existing tumors, as well as new tumors forming in the lungs, kidney, spine, and liver.

    We started keytruda on friday, and mom has goten very weak and legarthic.seems to have some loss of cognition & understanding, wont get up, sleeps most of the day, raises fever often, and has slightly swolen hands. All are known side effects of keytruda.

    As I understand it , some of these are inflammation, so I Give her as much as I can from the above recomended anti-inflammatory substances By Daniel, along with milk-thistle,Omega 3, EGCG, HCA and curcumin. along with the off label meds from the COC protocol.

    I am also waiting for DIM & colloidal silver solution to arrive.

    A main big problem I am Facing is Her cognitive Health.

    It seems as if she cannot pay attention or understand what I tell her many times, she is always so legarthic & sleepy, so when I give her her off labe meds, she doesnt understand she must swallow them, and chews or melts them in her mouth instead.

    anything thats in a capsule , I open and put in her shake or coffee. but the statins, aspirin mebedazole, metformin and diphyridamole, she chews up many times and that makes them useless , I think.

    I am very saddened & supprised to see all that cancer growth in her tests.

    I Thought I had covered all metabolic pathways, and been doing the protocol for long enough to at least see some stability, especially after adding liposomal vitc & feverfew to the list of supplements.

    Also, after having a very sobering chat with Her oncologist this evening, she said that perhaps we should stop immunotherapy and just accept that we are going to loose her. to focus on mitigating her pain so as to ease her through her passing, and that her prognosis is just a few weeks left.

    What have I been doing wrong? Is there something I am Overlooking?

    Her Gene Mutations are KRAS mutation c.35G>A (p.Gly12Asp) at condone 2 of KRAS oncogene.

    Other Mutations detected are:

    PIC3CA c.3140A>G(p.His1047Arg)
    and TP53 c.586C>T(p.Arg196Ter)

    I feel Depressed. I feel like I have Failed Her. And now I dont know how I should proceed.

    Been reading The Blog, Janes book again, also Neil McKinneys Naturopathic Oncology Book again, Other Books as well. But I think Im Catching Myself Panickingthat time is wasting..

    Any advice is Very Welcome and Apreciated.

    Thank You for Listening.

    And Sorry for My Negative post.

    1. Hi Nick,

      I am so sorry to hear about these challenges. As I understand you recently started immunotherapy (anti PD1). As mentioned above, it often the case that with this, tumors first grow before declining. It is very well known from literature and this is one aspect I do not like about immuno. Typically, in order to try to stop this first growth, it is best to use angiogenesis inhibitors. Examples of strong angiogenesis inhibitors are Thalidomide and Itraconazole. I can imagine that the typical inflammation produced by immunotherapies will strongly affect those with tumors located in sensitive points such as in the brain. This may explain the cognitive issues you have observed. Therefore, continuing with good anti-inflammatory and angiogenesis inhibitors may help in this case.

      Do you have a doctor that can give your mom intravenous treatments? If yes, 2DG metronomic and or Diflunisal may help a lot as well.

      If I can help with anything please let me know. We can also speak on the phone if that helps to go fast through more questions.

      Kind regards,

  51. My Friend Daniel.

    Thank You So Much for Everything You Have Done For Me and the Attention & Advice You Give Everyone Who is in Such Great Need of Help.

    Sadly , My Mother Passed Away this Morning..

    She was exhausted from this fight. The Lord Took Her Soul So She Can Finally Rest.

    I Am So Proud of Her, She Tried So Hard, Gulped down pill after pill. treatment after treatment.

    I Tried My Absolute Best To Save Her, Kept reading, giving her all the things I Thought Could Help. Took Her to the Best Doctors & Treatments Available. Prayed & Went To Church constantly.

    But as We make Our plans, God makes his own plans for Each of Us.

    Im fortunate to have come across your site, Where You Help People In Desperation, Tirelessly.

    I am Greateful for Your Help Daniel. Thank You.
    Never Stop Helping People to Be Cancer-Free.

    We all have loved ones With The Lord, Maybe They’re Watching..


    1. My dear Nick,

      I am so very sorry to hear about the passing of your dear mom. You are so right – God makes his own plans for Each of Us.
      What is important is how we react to the difficult events that are placed in our lives. That defines who we are and whether we fulfil the purpose why we are here. You did the best you could and that is the key. Your message above is so kind in such a difficult time for you and it tells so much about how kind person you are. Everything that happened to me during the past years indicate that this life is just a small step from everything that is. So I strongly believe that our loved ones are there, watching, and your mom is next to you – and loves you. Regardless of how much we have left on this planet, if it is one day, one year, or 100 years, time goes fast and life goes fast. That means that soon we will meet them again. Until that point we need to be here on this planned and do the best we can to generate positive energy (love) around us.

      Take care of you dear nick and a big hug,

  52. Dear Dr. Daniel..
    At first. I give you a best thanks for your such a very useful helps.
    I am a son of my mom. pancreatic cancer. south Korea.
    In south Korea. many patients and families getting helps through your home page..

    I can not exactly understand the sentence… In case this strategy is combined with chemotherapy, I would stop all fermentation inhibitors 3 days before chemo (including Metformin/Berberine as it also affects fermentation but not Doxycicline or Atorvaquone), and restart them in the day of chemo….

    Why do we have to stop the fermentation inhibitors 3 days before chemo??

    Is there any association between fermentation inhibitor mechanism and chemotherapy effect?

    Previously, you told in another page…. Inhibition of fermentation will also support chemotherapy (via e.g. reduction of multi drug resistance pumps that are energy dependent as well as increasing pH around the tumors)
    I can not understand the precise mechanism.. can you give me a more explanation?

    1. Dear ODW,

      Thank you so much for your question.

      The answer is here (bullet point #2)

      As explained at the link above, many chemos are affecting the most active cancer cells. This is why it’s best to stop fermentation inhibitors, since fermentation is the mechanism that allows a higher activity of cancer cells. I would stop fermentation inhibitors at least one day before but better 2-3 days depending on what is practical.

      Once chemo is started, during the same day I would add them back (as possible) starting with Metformin. Adding back Metformin during the chemo day will help lower the ATP and thus MDR pumps, and it will also help address other mechanisms, including lowering anti oxidant production.

      I mentioned the need to apply this strategy for many years and this may explain why Metformin addition did not help in the following study as it was applied continuously during the study

      I hope this answers your question.

      Kind regards,

  53. Dear Daniel.
    I really appreciate your previous kind answer.. But by extension.. I have another question,,,

    As you said, By quit the fermentation inhibitors before chemotherapy, resulting cancer cells to actively proliferate before chemotherapy and kill many cancer cells with chemotherapy….

    If so .. shouldn’t we also quit respiration inhibitor drug with a same mechanism?

    And dose it conflicts with the concept that short-term fasting before chemotherapy increases the effect of chemotherapy?
    In general. short term fasting is known reinforces stress resistance of healthy cells, while tumor cells become even more sensitive to chemo toxins, perhaps through shortage of nutrients to satisfy their needs in the context of high proliferation rates and/or loss of flexibility to respond to extreme circumstances.

    And,, CPI-613. novel PDH. KGDH inhibitor is administered immediately before cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drug.

    I really wonder about these questions.. please help my mom..

    Kind regards,

    1. Dear ODW,

      Thank you for your questions.

      Highly active cells (cancer cells but also other cells of our body) rely a lot on glycolisis/fermentation. Respiration is a highly efficient process to convert glucose into energy, but it is slow. This is why I would not be worried about mitochondria inhibitors such as Doxycycline for example. Actually, those like Doxy may even help increase the chemo effectiveness.
      Metformin or Berberine on the other hand are both mitochondria inhibitors but are also acting on glycolisis indirectly, and I would stop them a few days prior to chemo.

      Regarding the other question, this concept is not conflicting with short-term fasting before chemotherapy in my view. The reason for that is that short-term fasting is not inhibiting cancer cells (as glycolysis inhibitors do) while it is slowing down the normal cells. As a result, chemotherapy will do it’s normal job on cancer cells while will impact less the normal cells, experienced as less chemo side effects.
      (Note: while short term fasting will not impact in a major way cancer cells division, it is natural that long term fast will do).

      I am not sure what CPI-613 is doing as off-targets next to the impact on mitochondria, but if it has an impact also on fermentation, I would better take it immediately after chemo instead of before.

      Is your mom dealing with pancreatic cancer? What is the chemo she is taking?

      Kind regards,

      1. Dear daniel
        I really appreciate your immediate kind & precise answer. You are doing very worthful & meaningful job to so many cancer patients in the world.

        My mom. In last year, diagnosed as pancreatic adenocarcinoma. stage T3N1M0 and received pancreatomy successfully and received Folfirinox 16 times
        It worked well at first time but chemo resistance developed, resulted to metastasis to lung & bone.
        Currently, She are receiving gemcitabine + nab-paclitaxel + cisplatin. But it working not well..

        Since last year, she has been receiving high dose intravenous vitamin C and other re-purposing drugs such as metformin, empagliflozin. mebendazole, omeprazole, hydroxychloroquine, sulfasalazine, itraconazole, dipyridamole, pitavastatin, artemisinin, pancreatic enzyme. Celecoxib. Low dose naltrexone, melatonin, lactoferrin
        In addition. curcumin, ursolic acid, EGCG. Quercetin, and omega 3 acid & hydroxy citric acid are on giving
        And, after contact your site at 1mo ago, recently I started paricalcitol IV and oral DCA
        And I quit fermentation inhibitor drug & substances 2days before chemotherapy according to your recommend

        Do you have any more good idea for helpful to prolong my mom’s life span?
        Again I really appreciate your very worth helps
        Best sincere regards.

  54. Dear Daniel, it is so great that there is such a side and above all a person who is so intensely committed to this disease, its healing and everything that goes with it. I am impressed with how detailed you answer all the questions.
    I was found to have endometrial cancer. I had an operation and received radiation. Now I’m doing mistletoe therapy and receiving vitamin C infusions. As a dietary supplement, I take curcumin liposomal and vitamin D with K2 and magnesium. I do the Dr. Budwig diet, often as a smoothie, with red berries. I would like to extend this to include black raspberries. I had a nutrition plan drawn up by addon. They advised me against taking cat’s claw with the following reason: “Cat’s claw contains epicatechin. Epicatechin inhibits the complement cascade and the glutathione metabolism and activates the carbohydrate metabolism and amino
    Acid metabolism that negatively affects primary endometrial cancer. Therefore, Cats Claw is not recommended. “Can you say something about that? I would also like to take Indol3. But I find it difficult to decide. Is there a difference between DIM, Indol3 and your product broccoli? Which makes more sense? Thank you in advance for your efforts. I wish you a good time and best regards Ilona

    1. Dear Ilona,

      Thank you for your kind comment.
      I do not have a clear view on Cat’s claw at this moment, so I can not give you an opinion. I would need to first perform research on this subject and your questions.
      Regarding the other question, Indole 3 Carbinol or I3C breaks down into the metabolites Diindolylmethane (DIM) and Sulforaphane Glucosinolate (SGS). This is how they are related. So I would focus on the metabolites Diindolylmethane (DIM) and Sulforaphane Glucosinolate (SGS). DIM is more of an anti-estrogen (and detox) agent, while Sulforaphane is more outstanding in the liver detox space and there are studies indicating its potential as antibiotics. Both are outstanding in oncology.
      I wish you all the best too, and if you have other questions, please let me know.

      Kind regards,

  55. Dear Daniel,
    I am currently 2 months into hormone treatment (leuprorelin acetate) having been recently diagnosed with prostate cancer.
    The plan is for me to continue with the hormone therapy for 3 to 6 months, before embarking on a course of radiotherapy assumed to be 5x days per week for a month. Having read your excellent articles I am comfortanle with implementing some complimentary therapies to enhance the effect of Radio, but wondered,
    whilst I continue on hormone for potentially another 4 months, could I introduce some other herbal remedies, berberine, asparin, genestein, curcumin, omega 3, hydroxychloroquine and maybe 1 or 2 others from the shutting down the powerhouse roadmap to destabilise the cancer further or would this interfere with the action of the hormone treatment.

    1. Dear Chris,

      In order to reduce testosterone production, there are various mechanisms that can be addressed separately or at the same time, such as:
      – reducing the trigger for testosterone production
      – reducing testosterone production mechanism
      – reducing the fuel for testosterone production
      – reducing the capability of testosterone to bind to androgen receptors
      There are a few more aspects that can be addressed, but these would be the main steps.

      The drug you are now using, is related to the first point as it is a GnRH modulator, impacting LH, impacting testosterone. The other points can be addressed without interfering with GnRH modulators. However, I would always check the potential interaction between drugs here

      The chance of interaction is higher when the GnRH modulator is used as an oral drug, but as I know most are injections, often monthly.

      One point I would certainly do is to lower the fats in foods. This strategy is very relevant for hormonal cancers, in my view This is because cholesterol is the fuel for hormone production. Note that I am not speaking about blood cholesterol in this strategy, but by that available inside the cell from various other sources.

      The other point very important would be to consider using pro-oxidants to support radiation effectiveness. A lot has been discussed here

      To compete on Androgen Receptors, I would indeed consider using Genistein and SDG from flaxseed. Sulforaphane is known to help in prostate cancer, but I would not combine that with radiation, as Sulforaphane activates the anti-oxidant master regulator of cells.

      There were some very good results from City of Hope in the USA, when giving mushrooms to prostate cancer patients. You may want to look at that. That was addressed here

      I hope this helps.

      Kind regards,

  56. Dear Daniel,
    what you are doing is absolutely mindblowing. I would challenge anyone to find a website, that has so profound and unique insights to a topic that helps so many people in desperate need. It is simply incredible and I can’t thank you enough for all the effort that you are putting in!

    The reason why I am here is that my wife was diagnosed with TNBC (T2 N1mi M0) in Jan 2021, was not PCR after chemo and surgery (2mm metastasis in one lymphnode) and received another chemo and radiation therapy. It is a NED situation, but we are tracking her circulating tumor cells, which went from
    250 (after breast conserving surgery) to
    200 (after 2nd chemo) to
    0 (3 months after radiation) and now to
    450 (4 months later).

    That is why, we would like to try different strategies to get them down again. Based on your article I was thinking to start with
    1g Metformin,
    1g Berberine,
    5mg Omega 3,
    3g ECGC and
    100mg Sulporaphane (with mustard seeds).
    All of those daily for 2 weeks plus one dose Vitamin C IV at the end.

    Do you think another strategy (Coc protocol, pro-oxidant strategy, etc) would be more suitable to her situation?
    Any other thoughts on dosage and duration?

    Anyway, I will keep you posted about the results.

    All the best,

    1. Dear Chris,

      Thank you so much for your kind words.

      Given that the situation is NED, I woudl build a cocktail of drugs and supplements focussed on the following:

      1. Keep inflammation down.
      – for this, I woudl consider Boswellia, Black Cumin Oil, Olive Leaf Extract, Aspirin, Omega 3
      2. Target Circulating Tumor Cells
      – here I woudl consider Thimoquinone
      3. Address other mets mechanisms
      – here I woudl consider NAC, and if possible Cimetidine (but we need to take care with this for potential interaction with other drugs). Sulforaphane may also help here.
      4. Address mechanisms known to be relevant in TNBC
      – here I woudl specifically address Glutaminolysis using e.g. Ursolic Acid, Caffeic Acid, EGCG
      5. Use supplements and drugs known to be outstanding in most cancers
      – here I would consider high dose Curcumin, Metformin and/or Berberine

      and if possible

      6. Select a specific Strategy to address, such as those discussed above (such as shutting down the powerhouse, or anti cholesterol strategy) – this is a more a nice to have and not a must have in a NED situation
      7. Even more important, I woudl use supplements and drugs that can address parasites, viruses, as based on all my research and observation of facts, cancer seem to be an infectious disease. This is why I woudl do cycles with drugs such as Ivermectin, Mebendazole, and supplements such as Baicalein, Artemisinin. I woudl sue them at least in two cycles of a few weeks ON/OFF (e.g. two weeks ON and two weeks OFF).

      Here is some additional info that you may like to be aware of:

      Here is a case of a heavily pretreated woman with metastatic TNBC and AR expression who achieved a complete clinical response after 4 months of treatment with the AR antagonist bicalutamide.
      According to this article and case report, complete response could be obtained in some triple negative breast cancers when the patinet is treated with a common drug used for prostate cancer called Bicalutamide. Bicalutamide is a androgen receptor antagonist and it seems that 10% to 32% of the triple negative breast cancers have androgen receptors that can be targeted by Bicatulamide.
      Reference: Complete Response of Metastatic Androgen Receptor–Positive Breast Cancer to Bicalutamide: Case Report and Review of the Literature

      Another form of estrogen receptor — called estrogen beta — is present in 25 percent of triple-negative tumors, as well as in over 30 percent of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer tumors. Research showed that the estrogen receptor beta is a tumor suppressor, which correlates with better patient outcomes.
      “Remarkably,” claims Hawse, “we discovered that estradiol, which normally stimulates [the] growth of cancer cells in tumors that express estrogen receptor alpha, has the opposite effect in triple-negative breast cancer.”
      Here is the research paper demonstrating the anti-cancer effects of Estradiol: ERβ-mediated induction of cystatins results in suppression of TGFβ signaling and inhibition of triple-negative breast cancer metastasis.
      Mayo researchers identify potential new treatment for subset of women with triple-negative breast cancer

      Towards the first targeted therapy for triple-negative breast cancer: Repositioning of clofazimine as a chemotherapy-compatible selective Wnt pathway inhibitor Wnt signaling is overactivated in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and several other cancers, and its suppression emerges as an effective anticancer treatment. However, no drugs targeting the Wnt pathway exist on the market nor in advanced clinical trials. Here we provide a comprehensive body of preclinical evidence that an anti-leprotic drug clofazimine is effective against TNBC. Clofazimine specifically inhibits canonical Wnt signaling in a panel of TNBC cells in vitro. In several mouse xenograft models of TNBC, clofazimine efficiently suppresses tumor growth, correlating with in vivo inhibition of the Wnt pathway in the tumors. Clofazimine is well compatible with doxorubicin, exerting additive effects on tumor growth suppression, producing no adverse effects. Its excellent and well-characterized pharmacokinetics profile, lack of serious adverse effects at moderate (yet therapeutically effective) doses, its combinability with cytotoxic therapeutics, and the novel mechanistic mode of action make clofazimine a prime candidate for the repositioning clinical trials. Our work may bring forward the anti-Wnt targeted therapy, desperately needed for thousands of patients currently lacking targeted treatments.

      It may help to reduce the chance for mets bit as it is a super antioxidant it should not be combined with pro-oxidant treatments
      Myricetin may also help along this line, through different mechanisms
      Thimoquinone as well

      MCT4 may required specific focus in TNBC:
      Atorvastatin and Quercetin are most outstanding in MCT inhibition. More are discussed here:
      NAC actually also inhibits MCT4 so its an extra reason to consider it

      Folate deprivation or antifolate therapy for TNBCs

      Mildronate – a drug available in Europe, kills Trippe Negative Brest Cancer

      Artemisinin – Repurposing Artesunate for treatment of (Triple-negative) breast cancer

      Glutamine inhibition – it is well known that Glutamine is a major fuel in TNBC.

      Honokiol (the second case report after prostate is a triple negative patient)
      Intravenous Honokiol in Drug-Resistant Cancer: Two Case Reports

      I hope this helps.

      Kind regards,

      1. Dear Daniel,

        thank you so much for your help! We are looking through all of your points and next week we will start with the treatment. I will keep posting the progress.

        Kind regards,

  57. Dear Daniel,

    I have been a fan for as long as I can remember and always recommended your site and now the products. Yours is a great service to humanity.

    My brother seems to be passing due to cancer, stage 3 bladder. There is metastasis to bone and organs such as liver, lung, currently 43kg and bedridden. He is a great man, devoted his life to serving others. I can’t put into words the sadness of the situation as he has two very young daughters of 10 & 12, they are too old for these memories to fade and too young to recover from it.

    He is a lifelong vegan and was sporty, the cancer didnt make sense as it rarely does. He was always keen on health and supplementation, early on he tried many a natural therapy: budwig, keto, no carb/sugar, RGCC substances after testing. He was so very keen on a few protocols and would do them to his absolute best but sadly they did not work, despite my advice he didn’t look into the drug repurposing protocols here.

    We would be forever grateful if you could send us your thoughts on what to try. We would source absolutely anything if it can help, even from the US as we have a friend there in the field.

    Clinical History: High grade Bladder cancer 2012; Recurrence in 2014 and 2022; Most recent scan Aug 23
    hypermetabolic nodal disease above and below the diaphragm, left adrenal deposit, and multiple hypermetabolic bone metastases.
    10/03/2023 – Nephrostomy both sides
    03/08/2022 – Transurethral resection of bladder tumour (turbt)
    26/05/2023 – RMH CARB + GEM (AUC5 / 1000 X2)
    12/05/2023 – 12/5/2023. Radiation Therapy. Site: Midline Spine. Technique: 3D CRT. Goal: Symptom Controlling (Palliative).
    03/08/2023 – RMH ATEZ (3W) atezolizumab inhibitor 3 cycles, this did not work, his condition got worse.
    And more radiation to hips in September.
    October – FDG PET shows

    04/10/2023 NM Half body FDG PET with low dose CT attenuation correction imaging and image fusion was performed from the skull to thigh. BM= 5.8 mmols/L.
    Findings: Correlation is made with the FDG PET CT of 10/08/2023.
    There is further increase in burden of FDG-avid disease since August 2023.
    The previously seen intensely FDG-avid posterior bladder tumour has increased in size from 64 mm in maximum metabolic diameter to 54 mm now, at the comparable level, SUVmax 12.8 now vs 14.4 previously.
    Multiple regional and distant nodal uptake foci on both sides of the diaphragm have increased in number, e.g. the left SCF lymph node has SUVmax up to 6.1 now vs 6.5 previously. The new bilateral retroperitoneal lymph nodes with SUV max of 7.9 noted.
    The previously seen ring-like uptake focus within the right atrium has SUVmax up to 8.6 now vs 6.3 previously.
    The left adrenal deposit has SUVmax up to 8.0 now vs 8.1 previously.
    Multiple new small FDG-avid hepatic lesions within both lobes of the liver with no obvious segmental sparing. Bilateral nephrostomies
    The previously seen FDG-avid bony deposits with soft tissue components have increased in size and tracer intensity, e.g. the lateral left 2nd rib has increased from 16 mm to 39 mm, SUVmax 11.6 now vs 10.2 previously. Multiple new intensely FDG-avid bony uptake foci scattered elsewhere within the axial skeleton, e.g. the new left humeral head deposit has SUVmax of 8.5.
    The lung nodule in the right lower lobe anteriorly has increased from 7 mm to 10 mm now and remains non FDG-avid.
    The rest of the unenhanced visceral organs are unremarkable.
    Impression: Multiple sites of progressive soft tissue and bony disease, as described.

    Doctor recommended Enfortumab vedotin but it seems to have better success with pembrolizumab. It is horribly expensive and not available on the NHS in UK.

    Currently we are trying:
    Fenbendazole 222mg 5 days on 2 days off
    We have Ivermectin on standby, not sure if we can use it together with the above.
    CBD Oil oral
    Full spectrum of the herb oil as well
    Curcumin oral
    Turkey tail Mushroom 3g x 2 a day
    Essiac Tea
    Resveratrol oral

    We would source absolutely anything if it can help, even from the US as we have a friend there in the field. Of course my brother is willing to try anything.

    Very much looking forward to any advice.
    Best wishes,

    1. Hi Andy, I hope Daniel sees your post. You might want to send him an email as well. In advanced metastatic cancer, there’s often muscle wasting (cachexia), which causes extreme weight loss and further deteriorates the outlook. Addressing cachexia seems very relevant to your brother’s condition. Cyproheptadine is an appetite stimulant and has anticancer properties. It’s inexpensive and in most countries available over the counter, I’m not sure if this is the case in the UK. Daniel has an article on this substance, you can search for it through the search box at the top of this page.

      FYI, I’ve listed a few options on my blog to address cachexia:

      One of the substances listed on there is bovine tracheal cartilage, here’s more information about it:

      The treatment of human cancer with agents prepared from bovine cartilage
      J F Prudden, MD
      I think it’s available on Amazon.

      Best of luck


  58. Hi Andy, I hope Daniel sees your post. You might want to send him an email as well. In advanced metastatic cancer, there’s often muscle wasting (cachexia), which causes extreme weight loss and further deteriorates the outlook. Addressing cachexia seems very relevant to your brother’s condition. Cyproheptadine is an appetite stimulant and has anticancer properties. It’s inexpensive and in most countries available over the counter, I’m not sure if this is the case in the UK. Daniel has an article on this substance, you can search for it through the search box at the top of this page.

    FYI, I’ve listed a few options on my blog to address cachexia:

    One of the substances listed on there is bovine tracheal cartilage, here’s more information about it:

    The treatment of human cancer with agents prepared from bovine cartilage
    J F Prudden, MD
    I think it’s available on Amazon.

    Best of luck


  59. @Daniel hope you see my message above.

    @Johan – thank you,
    We are worried that Cyproheptadine as an anti-histamine can make an elderly person delirious. Also not seeing good studies to show it working for advanced stage bladder cancer, do you have some reference for this scenario?

    1. So in that study, they found a significant influence on survival rate in humans, to me that’s about as good as it gets. In many countries, this is over-the-counter medicine, as with most pharmaceutical drugs serious side effects usually only occur in cases of overdose.

    2. @Andy: the situation is looking quite bad, especially because of the bone and liver metastases, but maybe there are some treatment options, and not too expensive. Nitroxoline is a urinary antibiotic, cheap and manufactured in Russia and Ukraine, that I mentioned here about 4 years ago, and has activity against bladder cancer. Intravesical metformin may help with the primary tumor. An expensive treatment option is nab-Paclitaxel, plus other chemo and Lansoprazole (but PPIs and Pembrolizumab are antagonistic). Metronomic deoxyglucose, discussed in an article by Daniel on this site, may also help.

      Nitroxoline suppresses metastasis in bladder cancer via EGR1/circNDRG1/miR-520h/smad7/EMT signaling pathway PMID: 35982887
      Nitroxoline inhibits bladder cancer progression by reversing EMT process and enhancing anti-tumor immunity PMID: 33046984
      Discovery and Validation of Nitroxoline as a Novel STAT3 Inhibitor in Drug-resistant Urothelial Bladder Cancer PMID: 34421363
      High efficacy of intravesical treatment of metformin on bladder cancer in preclinical model PMID: 26802022
      Case report: Complete response of a bladder cancer patient with multiple hepatic and pelvic metastases treated by nab-paclitaxel combined with sintilimab PMID: 36578927

  60. Metabolic profiling of attached and detached metformin and 2‑deoxy‑D‑glucose treated breast cancer cells reveals adaptive changes in the metabolome of detached cells.

    ” we observed that treating breast cancer cells with metformin and physiologically relevant concentration of 2DG induced detachment of viable cells that retained their proliferation capacity following reseeding. This effect might be relevant for metastasis formation, where cell detachment from the invasion front is the crucial step in the early stages. Following detachment, cancer cells must avoid anoikis—programmed cell death in the detached state. Survival in anchorage-independent conditions in vitro is therefore closely correlated to metastasis formation in vivo. The anchorage-independent mRNA expression signature also correlates with the aggressiveness of cancer lines in vivo. The MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer cell line is capable of growth in anchorage-independent conditions and has the ability to form metastases in animal models”

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