Making Tumors Drop Off: Molecular Hydrogen

Author: Daniel S, PhD; Last update: Febraury 28th, 2021

Introduction

Dear Friends,

A few months ago I shared an article in the Forum section of this website, reporting on a successful treatment of a lung cancer patient with brain metastasis. In this case, the brain metastasis completely disappeared after the patient has been treated with Hydrogen Gas inhalation (Ref.). After sharing this article, two friends and long term contributors to this website (Manuel and J) have identified this treatment option as having good potential, and they continued researching the subject.

Manuel has been specifically interested in this treatment option as he is in a constant search for treatment options to address brain tumors, given that his dear mom is a glioblastoma patient for >5 years now. Clearly, Manuel is doing a great job in identifying and implementing valuable treatment options since survival of glioblastoma patients for so long time is a great achievement. Manuel has shared the information regarding the potential of Hydrogen Gas inhalation with other cancer patients. Recently, he contacted me letting me know that one of the patients he is in contact with has implemented this treatment option and achieved important results in shrinking brain tumors (the anecdotal report will be added later to this post, or to the related comments).

This anecdotal report of success in humans, together with the successful case report presented in the scientific literature and the emerging science indicating a great potential of Hydrogen Gas inhalation in oncology, triggered me to allocate time and write this post.

Therefore, we here have a high potential treatment options to address brain tumors, that is supported by facts and science, and at the same time it is accessible. In addition to addressing brain tumors, as I will further discuss, this is a good tool to try to address tumors in general and to try and recover patients from longer term side effects induced by conventional oncology treatments.

Below, I would like to give you some background on Hydrogen Gas inhalation, the case reports, the science behind, how to access this treatment option and how it is typically applied. If you like this content please don’t forget to share, to possibly save a life. If you like me to continue consolidating such content for you, please push the Donate button to support or consider buying your food supplements at MCS Formulas.

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Hydrogen 

Hydrogen Gas (or molecular hydrogen, H2) is made up of two hydrogen atoms bonded together. It consists out of 2 electrons and 2 protons, that create a neutrally charged molecule. It has a high lipid solubility and permeability. This allows molecular hydrogen to move through cell membranes and reach the inside cellular space where it can act on various parts of the cell such as mitochondria and nucleus (Ref.). The same property also allows molecular hydrogen to cross the blood-brain barrier (Ref.).

During the past decade, the research on hydrogen in relation to its potential health benefits has started to gain momentum suggesting that hydrogen therapy may induce various health benefits such as:

  • to treat pulmonary symptoms of acute lung injury, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Ref.)
  • decreases brain water content (Ref.)
  • protects against sepsis related side effects such as apoptosis and necrosis of cells due to reactive oxygen species (Ref.)
  • has a blood alkalizing effect (.)
  • reduces parasite-induced liver inflammation (Ref.)
  • general solution to protect against oxidative damage (Ref.)
  • reduced blood lactate levels (Ref.) and has a blood alkalizing effect (Ref.)
  • helps prevent accumulative muscular fatigue after sever exercise (Ref.)
  • alleviates nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (Ref.)
  • neuroprotective – significant improvement of Parkinson disease patients (Ref.)
  • reduces allergic reaction (Ref.)
  • helps fight  obesity and diabetes (Ref.)

A recent phase 2 trial, has demonstrated that hydrogen therapy can be highly effective against Chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGVHD) due to stem cell transplantation used in the treatment of benign and malignant hematopoietic diseases (Ref.). In this trial, the survival rate at 4 years in the response group was significantly higher than the nonresponse group (86.6% vs 0%; p= 0.000132). 

Another recent study has indicated that Hydrogen gas inhalation therapy significantly alleviates radiation-induced bone marrow damage without compromising anti-tumor effects (Ref.) and has the potential to alleviate nephrotoxicity induced by an anti-cancer drug cisplatin without compromising anti-tumor activity (Ref.).

Hydrogen and Cancer

Hydrogen as a Powerful Antioxidant

Last year, I published a post discussing in details the relevance of reactive oxygen specifies and anti-oxidants in cancer (Ref.). I specifically focused that post on a strategy to fight cancer by increasing the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This approach goes hand in hand with chemo- and radiotherapy, to help increase their effectiveness (Ref.). Therefore, in my view pro-oxidant strategy is a pulsed strategy mainly build around conventional treatments.

Actually, there are pro-oxidant treatments that can be continuously applied, and others only pulsed due to their potential side effects. To be even more specific, pro-oxidant treatments can be clustered in two categories:

  • treatments that generate a pro-oxidant effect in cancer cells only (or mainly) (such as high dose vitamin C, Artemisinin, etc.) – such approaches can be applied for long periods of time (i.e. not necessarily only around conventional therapies)
  • treatments that increase ROS in many types of cells regardless if they are cancer cells or normal cells (such as chemotherapy, paracetamol, etc.) – such approaches should only be used in a pulsed manner if the choice is to use them, since it will not be sustainable for the body as a whole for a long period of time

In the same article, I mentioned that both increasing and decreasing the level of anti-oxidants in cancer can help fight cancer. 

Indeed, tight regulation of ROS levels is crucial for cellular life. Cancer cells are much more sensitive to that since due to their hyperactivity, they produced an increased level of ROS and at the same time a higher level of anti-oxidants to keep ROS in balance, and not damage the cancer cell.

In other words, from reactive oxygen species and anti-oxidants point of view, cancer cells are walking on a narrower path compared to the normal cells.

Hydrogen is a tool to fight cancer that disrupts this balance by increasing the anti-oxidant level. Indeed, during 2007, an article has been published in the prestigious magazine Nature Medicine, demonstrating that Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals (Ref.).

So, why reducing ROS would help fighting cancer?

In cancer, high levels of reactive oxygen species can support development and spread of tumors via at least two major mechanisms:

  • increase receptor and oncogene activity, and the stimulation of growth factor-dependent pathways or oxidizing enzymes induce genetic instability (Ref.1, Ref.2, Ref.3) 
  • ROS is known to mediate the proliferation and migration of cancer
    • An enzyme called Plasmin can degrade various components of the extracellular matrix of the tumor (ECM), such as fibrin and collagen, and participates in the activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are highly efficient in the degradation of the ECM (Ref.1, Ref.2). Both plasmin and MMPs degrade ECM proteins, allowing tumors to advance. This facilitates the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. ROS have been found to enable the efficient conversion of Plasminogen to Plasmin at the cell surface. It does that by upregulation of the complex of uPA with its receptor (uPAR), which in turn allows the efficient conversion of plasminogen to plasmin (Ref.).

As a side note, interestingly, Amiloride (a drug we discussed in the context of another anti-cancer strategy (Ref.)) inhibits u-PA (Ref.), inhibiting the generation of plasmin.

Therefore, strong antioxidants such as Hydrogen would act against mechanism that support cancer progression. You could also imagine this action of anti-oxidants as a way to encapsulate tumors. This is a little similar concept (but different mechanism) as Pauling and Cameron imagined the anti-cancer activity of their medium-dose Vitamin C (see the Mechanism section here). This makes me think that a combination of Hydrogen therapy with metronomic Vitamin C would be good. Note, that by metronomic I mean a lower dose Vitamin C compared to that use to generate pro-oxidants effects, and applied for longer periods of time (several hours or more, at e.g. 0.5-5g/hour – this could also be done with Vitamin C taken orally, but even better with a pump delivered intravenously).

To conclude the discussion on anti-oxidant vs. pro-oxidant strategy to fight cancer, I would state the following:

  • According to literature anti-oxidants and pro-oxidants can both kill or fuel cancer – they are considered double‐edged swords
  • The cancer promoting activity takes place when we use anti-oxidants or pro-oxidants, but not at a level high enough to generate an unbalance that is detrimental to cancer cells
  • This is why, if we intend to fight cancer along this line, it is important to pick our battle (pro- or anti-oxidant) and build a coherent strategy around that (i.e. not just a bit of that and a bit of the other)
  • Typically, we need to pick the side that supports the core treatment (a core treatment could be chemo that can be considered as pro-oxidant; another could be an intense anti-cancer diet that is focused on anti-oxidants in most of the cases)
  • Therefore, in order to make use of their “cancer-kill” potential anti-oxidants and pro-oxidants have to be clustered and enhanced via distinct, coherent and focused therapies. Such a strategy focused along the pro-oxidant direction has been discussed here (Ref.)

Indeed, strong anti-oxidants such as NAC have been shown to have anti-proliferative effects in breast cancer patients (Ref.) (note: in this case the anti-cancer effect has been attributed to metabolic modulation by NAC). Similarly, hydrogen has also been suggested as a potential metabolic inhibitor and mitochondria activator (Ref.). In addition, hydrogen can induce inhibition of secretion of cytokines such as interleukin-4, interleukin-13, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (Ref.).

Nevertheless a main anti-cancer activity related to hydrogen seems to be related to it’s strong anti-oxidant profile.

One of the major reasons why hydrogen acts as an anti-oxidant is because it reacts with one of the most aggressive ROS (Ref.) Another anti-oxidant activity seems to be related to the fact that hydrogen activates Nrf2 expression (Ref.). As discussed previously (Ref.), Nrf2 is the master regulator of antio-oxidants in the cells. Indeed, a pilot study has shown that drinking hydrogen-rich water positively affects serum antioxidant enzymes in healthy men (Ref.).

Using the Powerful Antioxidant properties of Hydrogen to Kill Cancer: Making Tumors Drop Off

One of the first experiment to demonstrate the anti cancer activity of Hydrogen was performed in a skin squamous carcinoma mouse model. The results, have been published in 1975 in the prestigious journal Science (Ref.). Here, mice with squamous cell carcinoma were exposed for periods up to 2 weeks to hydrogen in order to see if this free radical decay catalyzer, would cause a regression of the skin tumors. “After a first 10-day period of exposure of the mice to the hydrogen-oxygen therapy it was found qualitatively (i) that the tumors had turned black, (ii) that some had dropped off, (iii) that some seemed to be shrunk at their base and to be in the process of being “pinched off,” and (iv) that the mice appeared to suffer no deleterious consequences.” (Ref.) This effect was not observed when the mice were exposed to other gases such as helium and oxygen. At the end of their article the authors predicted that this anti-cancer activity may be due to the reaction of hydrogen with the most potent oxidant known to mankind, i.e.  OH radical. 30 years later, that has indeed demonstrated to be the case (Ref.).

Latter, scientific research indicated that hydrogen therapy could be relevant against various forms of cancer, such as

  • lung cancer (Ref.1, Ref.2
  • gastric cancer (Ref.
  • endometrial cancer (Ref.)
  • fibrosarcoma (Ref.)
  • tongue carcinoma (Ref.)
  • ehrlich ascites tumor cells (Ref.)
  • gallbladder cancer (Ref.)
  • glioblastoma (Ref.)
  • colorectal cancer (Ref.)
  • etc. (the type of anti-cancer mechanisms related to the molecular hydrogen makes it relevant for most cancers)

Hydrogen Theraphy: Results in Humans

Brain Metastases Completely Disappear in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Using Hydrogen Gas Inhalation: A Case Report https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6927257/

“We report a 44-year-old woman diagnosed with lung cancer with multiple metastases in November 2015. Oral targeted drugs were initiated after the removal of brain metastases, and most lesions remained stable for 28 months. In March 2018, intracranial multiple metastases, as well as hydrocephalus accumulation in the third ventricle and lateral ventricles, and metastases in bone, adrenal gland, liver were noted. Hydrogen-gas monotherapy was started to control the tumor a month later. After 4 months, the size of multiple brain tumors was reduced significantly, and the amount of hydrocephalus in the third ventricle and lateral ventricles reduced significantly. After 1 year, all brain tumors had disappeared, and there were no significant changes in metastases in the liver and lung.”

“Real world survey” of hydrogen-controlled cancer: a follow-up report of 82 advanced cancer patients (Ref.) – prospective follow-up study of 82 patients with stage III and IV cancer treated with hydrogen inhalation with the following results:

  • “After 4 weeks of hydrogen inhalation, patients reported significant improvements in fatigue, insomnia, anorexia and pain.
  • Furthermore, 41.5% of patients had improved physical status, with the best effect achieved in lung cancer patients and the poorest in patients with pancreatic and gynecologic cancers. 
  • The greatest marker decrease was in achieved lung cancer and the lowest in pancreatic and hepatic malignancies.
  • Of the 80 cases with tumors visible in imaging, the total disease control rate was 57.5%, with complete and partial remission appearing at 21-80 days (median 55 days) after hydrogen inhalation.
  • The disease control rate was significantly higher in stage III patients than in stage IV patients (83.0% and 47.7%, respectively), with the lowest disease control rate in pancreatic cancer patients.”

Conclusion: “In patients with advanced cancer, inhaled hydrogen can improve patients’ quality-of-life and control cancer progression.”

Hydrogen therapy can be used to control tumor progression and alleviate the adverse events of medications in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (Ref.)

Hydrogen gas therapy induced shrinkage of metastatic gallbladder cancer: A case report (Ref.)

“The patient refused other treatments and began daily hydrogen inhalation therapy. After 1 mo of treatment, the gallbladder and liver tumors continued to progress, and intestinal obstruction occurred. After continuous hydrogen therapy and symptomatic treatments including gastrointestinal decompression and intravenous nutrition support, the intestinal obstruction was gradually relieved. Three months after hydrogen therapy, the metastases in the abdominal cavity gradually reduced in size, her anemia and hypoalbuminemia were corrected, lymphocyte and tumor marker levels returned to normal, and the patient was able to resume normal life.”

Hydrogen gas restores exhausted CD8+ T cells in patients with advanced colorectal cancer to improve prognosis https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30542740/

“A total of 55 patients with histologically and clinically diagnosed stage IV colorectal carcinoma were enrolled between July 2014 and July 2017. The patients inhaled hydrogen gas for 3 h/day at their own homes and received chemotherapy at the Tamana Regional Health Medical Center (Tamana, Kumamoto, Japan).” … “Collectively, the present results suggested that hydrogen gas reverses imbalances toward PD‑1+ CD8+ T cells to provide an improved prognosis.”

Interestingly, and against my expectations, it had been suggested that Hydrogen theraphy may reduce side effects of chemo and radio therapy while not affecting their effectiveness (Ref.1, Ref.2). Nevertheless, I would avoid combining Hydrogen therapy with chemo and radio – that means I woudl only use hydrogen gas starting several days ( about 5-7) after the conventional therapy has been performed. Consequently, it may be a good tool to use, to try and recover from such side effects as those induced by conventional oncology treatments.

Side Effects

Hydrogen and helium mixed gas has been used in diving for a long time, and divers have no obvious adverse reactions even when breathing high-pressure hydrogen. In addition, bacteria in the colon of humans and animals also produce a certain level of hydrogen. Blautia coccoides and Clostridium leptum produced the largest amount of hydrogen (Ref.).

“no adverse events were observed in the 55 patients who inhaled hydrogen gas for 3 months in the present study” (Ref.) 

How to administer Hydrogen

Hydrogen can be delivered in various ways:

  • Inhalation of hydrogen
  • Taking a bath in hydrogen water (Ref.)
  • Using hyperbaric hydrogen chambers
  • Administered via intravenous injection of hydrogen in saline (Ref.)
  • Drinking hydrogen dissolved in water (Ref.)

We can also try to increase the hydrogen production by intestinal bacteria via diet (Ref.).

However, to ensure therapeutic effectiveness, the best way is to inhale hydrogen, unless we intend to address tumors that could be reached by drinking hydrogen-rich water.  “The inhaled hydrogen should be delivered at sufficiently high concentrations to rapid allow entry into tissues, and with enough time to produce a dose-accumulation effect.” (Ref.)

After inhalation, hydrogen will end up distributed in various organs. Hydrogen distribution by organ has been discussed here (Ref.).

Regarding the inhalation method, one paper describes the following:

“H2 was produced by a H2–oxygen nebulizer (H2 66.7% and oxygen 33.3%; maximum gas flow, 3 L/min; AMS-H-03, Shanghai Asclepius Meditec, Shanghai, China). Enrolled patients inhaled the gas mixture for 4–6 hours every day and underwent imaging examination every month until the existing lesions progressed significantly or new metastases appeared.” (Ref.) In this way, hydrogen inhalation maintains high blood levels, equivalent to 600 μM which inhibits cancer cells growth in vitro (Ref.1, Ref.2).

In another study, the patients inhaled hydrogen gas for 3 h/day at their own homes. “The patients inhaled hydrogen gas for 3 h daily at their own homes through a cannula or mask, rented or purchased by themselves, connected to a Hycellvator ET 100 (Helix Japan, Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan)” … “The Hycellvator ET 100 (Helix Japan, Co., Ltd.) generates 1.67 l/min hydrogen gas (hydrogen purity, 99.99%) by electrolysis. As measured by gas chromatography at Kureha Special Laboratory (Iwaki, Fukushima, Japan), the gas generated consisted of 680,000 ppm hydrogen gas and 320,000 ppm oxygen gas.” (Ref.)

Therefore, the studies observing positive results used the following conditions:

  • 3-6 hours inhalation of the gas, for months
  • the 3-6 hours inhalation was a continuous process
  • the Chinese gas generator, generated 3 L/min gas containing molecular hydrogen 66.7% and oxygen 33.3%. That means about 2l/min pure hydrogen.
  • the Japanese gas generator, generated 1.67 l/min pure hydrogen gas, delivered via a mixture of hydrogen 68% and oxygen 32%.

Example of Hydrogen Generators

I am not sure which Generator is the best in terms of brands, but here are a few examples of generators and related prices as I received from Manuel and what I could find online:

  • A generator, generating 830 mL/m of 66% hydrogen and 33% oxygen costs about $3000 (Ref.) but the generated hydrogen/minute would not be enough for oncology purpose 
  • A Japanese generator generating 500 mL/m hydrogen (Ref.) – again too low for oncology purpose but it could be relevant for prevention purpose 
  • Here is the Chinese generator used in the study above, generating 3 L/min: AMS-H-03Hydrogen Oxygen Generator With Nebulizer providing high level of hydrogen, but the price may go up to $10.000
  • Here is the generator used in the Japanese study Hycellvator ET 100 (Ref.)
  • Here is a Swiss company producing high flow hydrogen generators https://www.lni-swissgas.eu/en/products/hydrogen-generators/

According to Manuel, the patient reporting positive results with the brain metastasis used the Chinese generator.

In case you find other generators that can provide 2-3 L/min of gas containing hydrogen, please share that as a comment to this post.

Increasing the anti cancer potential of Hydrogen 

According to this study, inhibition of autophagy facilitates hydrogen gas-mediated cancer cell apoptosis (Ref.). Therefore, adding autophagy inhibitors to Hydrogen therapy makes sense. A well known autophagy inhibitor previously discussed on this website is HydroxyChloroquine (Ref).

Another way to possibly maximize the chance of a positive outcome with Hydrogen therapy could be by combining it with metronomic Vitamin C as discussed above.

In addition, adding N-Acetyl-Cysteine (a strong anti-oxidant) at a dose such as 1g/day could add value. 

Other articles to read on the same subject

Alfonso from Spain, at CancerIntegral, also wrote recently a very nice post on Hydrogen as an anti-cancer therapy, which I very much recommend reading here. Alfonso has a similar story as mine, and at CancerIntegral he is publishing high quality posts on oncology treatment options. His posts are in Spanish but you can use Google translate option to read his posts in your own language. 

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References

Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals https://www.nature.com/articles/nm1577

Acute oxidative stress induced by ischemia-reperfusion or inflammation causes serious damage to tissues, and persistent oxidative stress is accepted as one of the causes of many common diseases including cancer. We show here that hydrogen (H2) has potential as an antioxidant in preventive and therapeutic applications. We induced acute oxidative stress in cultured cells by three independent methods. H2 selectively reduced the hydroxyl radical, the most cytotoxic of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and effectively protected cells; however, H2 did not react with other ROS, which possess physiological roles. We used an acute rat model in which oxidative stress damage was induced in the brain by focal ischemia and reperfusion. The inhalation of H2 gas markedly suppressed brain injury by buffering the effects of oxidative stress. Thus H2 can be used as an effective antioxidant therapy; owing to its ability to rapidly diffuse across membranes, it can reach and react with cytotoxic ROS and thus protect against oxidative damage.

Signal transduction by reactive oxygen species https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3135394/

Although historically viewed as purely harmful, recent evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) function as important physiological regulators of intracellular signaling pathways. The specific effects of ROS are modulated in large part through the covalent modification of specific cysteine residues found within redox-sensitive target proteins. Oxidation of these specific and reactive cysteine residues in turn can lead to the reversible modification of enzymatic activity. Emerging evidence suggests that ROS regulate diverse physiological parameters ranging from the response to growth factor stimulation to the generation of the inflammatory response, and that dysregulated ROS signaling may contribute to a host of human diseases.

From Plasminogen to Plasmin: Role of Plasminogen Receptors in Human Cancer https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4264222

Cell surface-associated proteolysis mediated by plasmin (PLA) is an essential feature of wound healing, angiogenesis and cell invasion, processes that are dysregulated in cancer development, progression and systemic spread. The generation of PLA, initiated by the binding of its precursor plasminogen (PLG) to the cell surface, is regulated by an array of activators, inhibitors and receptors. In this review, we will highlight the importance of the best-characterized components of the PLG/PLA cascade in the pathogenesis of cancer focusing on the role of the cell surface-PLG receptors (PLG-R). PLG-R overexpression has been associated with poor prognosis of cancer patients and resistance to chemotherapy. We will also discuss recent findings on the molecular mechanisms regulating cell surface expression and distribution of PLG-R.

Anti-inflammatory and antitumor action of hydrogen via reactive oxygen species https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6096066/

Hydrogen (H2) has advantages that lead it to be used as a novel antioxidant in preventive and therapeutic applications. H2 can permeate into biomembranes, cytosol, mitochondria and nuclei, and can be dissolved in water or saline to produce H2 water or H2-rich saline. H2 selectively reduces oxidants of the detrimental reactive oxygen species (ROS), including hydroxyl radicals (·OH) and peroxynitrite (ONOO−), which serve a causative role in the promotion of tumor cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis, but do not disturb metabolic oxidation-reduction reactions in cell signaling. Compared with traditional antioxidants, H2 is a small molecule that can easily dissipate throughout the body and cells; thus, it may be a safe and effective antioxidant for inflammatory diseases and cancer, since ROS usually initiates tumor progression. Treatment with H2 may involve correction of the oxidative/anti-oxidative imbalance and suppression of inflammatory mediators. Therefore the present review will discuss the anti-inflammatory and anti-tumorigenic action of H2 via ROS.
 

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48 thoughts on “Making Tumors Drop Off: Molecular Hydrogen

  1. Hello Daniel,

    Thank you very much for posting this article – as you know, I am also in the search for options to treat brain metastases. Hydrogen inhalation seems to be a very promising and applicable treatment option that can be considered for use in regular households.

    One thing I would like to get your opinion on is the safety aspect. As we know, hydrogen gas at specific concentrations is highly flammable. The following article discusses the safety issue of H2 gas inhalers from the perspective of preventing explosion:
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6779006/?fbclid=IwAR1fwaWouHdNhKiWdJvRdYSza6_aBZdzEVfo732weh_tw1CsQwPYjddMA6s

    The article states that a H2 concentration of 4 – 75% in air is potentially the range in which it can be ignited by a heat source such as flame or static electricity. I have spoken with the following two H2 gas inhaler manufacturers and queried why their products have a much lower (e.g. 500mL/min) flowrate compared with the 3L/min for the Chinese AMS-H-03 machine:
    https://hydrogen4health.com/products/
    https://hydrogentechnologies.com.au/

    Their explanation is that you do not want to saturate the lungs with H2 gas higher than the lower flammable limit. The average person inhales approximately 6L/min of air. If we assume the lower flammable limit of hydrogen gas is 5% in air, then that equates to an intake of 300mL/min. Of course, we are not constantly inhaling, but rather we inhale approx 1/3 of the time (inhale, pause, exhale, pause). Therefore according to that logic, we should be aiming for a machine that provides flow rate of 900mL/min to achieve highest concentration without exceeding the lower flammable limit.

    As a comparison, the following video from Hydrogen4Health shows their Brown’s Gas machine with a chart for recommended inhalation, as a function of body weight (at 6min 20sec mark):
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=8&v=1QrNtKf5KBU&feature=emb_title&ab_channel=delvis11
    I believe this chart is a bit conservative and does not take into account the exhalation and pause time in breathing, however.

    The Chinese machines were used in a clinical setting possibly with many controls in place, therefore may not be suitable for use at home.

    I am interested in your (and Manuel’s) thoughts on the logic above, if it makes sense or if there is in fact no credible danger with regards to inhaling high concentrations of H2.

    Thanks,

    Jun

    1. Dear Jun,

      It’s always nice to hear from you!

      Indeed, H2 is flammable at temperatures above 520 °C, and can explode in the range of H2 concentration (4-75%, vol/vol). “Fires and explosions have occurred in various components of hydrogen systems as a result of a variety of ignition sources. Ignition sources have included mechanical sparks from rapidly closing valves, electrostatic discharges in ungrounded particulate filters, sparks from electrical equipment, welding and cutting operations, catalyst particles, and lightning strikes near the vent stack.” https://www.nat.vu.nl/~griessen/STofHinM/Chapter%20XSafety.pdf

      The point about the safety related to the explosion potential is a relevant one to be considered. I did not address this aspect in the post above, since on one hand I expect the equipment suppliers will take measures to inform customers on how to prevent this, and on the other hand I have seen no one in the scientific case reports and studies pointing towards this as a major point of concern.

      I am sure there will be many manufacturers arguing that it is best to stay below a certain range when they sell equipment in that range. However, instead of lowering the flow of hydrogen gas which is important to maximize the chance we achieve the desired effects, I would work towards minimizing the risks.

      I am not sure what are the best practices towards minimizing the chance for explosion, but I guess one obvious one is to make sure we are using it in a well ventilated room. The Japanese study was specifically stating that the systems have been used at home, so it must be possible somehow: “The patients inhaled hydrogen gas for 3 h/day at their own homes and received chemotherapy at the Tamana Regional Health Medical Center (Tamana, Kumamoto, Japan)” Also, I think the people from whom Manuel received the news about positive results are also using it at home. Maybe Manuel can comment on this?

      Kind regards,
      Daniel

    2. Hi, can you please tell me where in UK I can get a 3l/min machine for home use quickly, as my sister has glioblastoma and we need this for her

  2. Daniel thanks for the article. I am very much interested in getting these treatments for my son who has Grade 4 Glioblastoma Tumor in his spinal cord. Does anyone provide these treatments in a hospital or clinic? Or is it better to buy the unit and administer at home.

    Thanks!

    Wayne

    1. HI Wayne,

      I am sure there are cancer clinics providing this option, but as I understand, the other option with less financial impact is to rent the equipment for home use while we make sure that we receive the instructions to use the equipment safely (there are concerns regarding the safety of hydrogen generators in relation to explosion potential as Jun stated above).

      Regarding Glioblastoma, you may want to address more questions to Manuel (he commented below) as he may be able to help with tips regarding various options.

      Kind regards,
      Daniel

      Kind regards,
      Daniel

      1. Dear Daniel
        First of all, thank you so much for your amazing blog that often brings me hope and fighting spirit in the fight against cancer. I am the father of a 21-year-old boy / man who was diagnosed with brain cancer at the age of 18 (anaplastic ependymoma grade III). Currently, my son gets the COC protocol daily combined with large amounts of zinc, berberine, D3, Boswillia, K2, Omega 3 and grape fruit extract. After reading the article on H2, I consider supplementing the above “drugs” with H2 water. But I am very much in doubt as to whether it can actually risk boosting the cancer? My son is currently cancer free so all the drugs he gets are preventative. My question is thus can it be advised to install H2 water in his apartment, or not. I have initially considered the following model: https://tyent-danmark.dk/vare/h2cap-plus-hydrogen-vand/
        Thanks in advance
        René Damgaard

        1. Dear Rene,

          Thank you for your question and kind words. I am happy to know your dear son is cancer free.
          I don’t think adding the water will have a major impact (both negative or positive), but in this situation I would just continue with what you are using and not make changes.

          Kind regards,
          Daniel

  3. Excellent summary Daniel! thanks for your efforts once again! I believe that the inhalation of molecular hydrogen can have a huge impact on health therapy.
    They are very expensive devices so we have to think about it very well.
    In this study they speak of the inhibition of glucose and lactate in GCS but an increase in de novo synthesis.
    https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-15407/v1

    “Undirected metabolomic analyzes showed hydrogen-induced promotion of de novo nucleotide synthesis in GSCs. Metabolic flux analysis showed decreased glucose metabolism in hydrogen-induced GSCs. On the contrary, the content Glycerol 3-phosphate, glutamate and glutamine was increased by treatment with hydrogen “.
    Would be interesting to work on these routes, sodium phenylbutyrate always seemed interesting to me as an HDAC inhibitor and to work indirectly on the glutamine process.
    Perhaps the de novo synthesis can be mediated with hydroxycitrate, magnesium gluconate and lycopene?
    Very good idea the possibility of combining with hydroxychloroquine to inhibit autophagy …. It is also interesting to combine with vitamin C of metronomic doses but I tried something similar once with an infusion pump and it left my mother very weakened, possibly due to some electro-lithic imbalance. …
    You’re talking about adding N-acetyl-cysteine ​​… wouldn’t it increase glutathione too much?
    Summary: molecular hydrogen, sodium phenylbutyrate, hydroxychloroquine, HCA, magnesium gluconate, continuous vitamin C in low doses …??????

    Kind regards

    1. Hi Manuel,

      This answers your first question on WhatsApp 🙂
      As soon as possible I will try to address your other questions related to the paper at the link you posted above. Actually, some days ago I was thinking to design a glutaminolysis inhibitor supplement at MCS Formulas (combining multiple inhibitors)

      Along this strategy line, NAC and Glutathione would be no problem since it is actually the purpose of stopping ROS.

      Btw, Manuel, when u have time, could you please share shortly this anecdotal report and what system they used? Maybe you can also ask them if they took any special measures to avoid the risks related to generating Hydrogen at home. Thank you.

      Kind regards,
      Daniel

      1. Dear Daniel, both cases used the AMS-H-03 ascleway machine at 3L / min. more than 6 hours a day. You can expand the information with the data that I sent you by email and asking one of them if they want to share her personal experience 🙂
        The ascleway device is absolutely safe, they took more than 10 years to develop the perfect device, on the contrary it is very expensive.

        1. HI Manuel,

          Thanks for the info and allowing to share your email. As you mentioned, there were two anecdotal reports of response to hydrogen therapy.

          First case, you said I can share here, so here is your email:

          – I sent you here the reports sent to me by the husband of the American woman who was responding to molecular hydrogen therapy. He tells me the following: “Her neurologist says she has a dead lesion. She still has a mass in her brain but no active cancer. It has shrunk since starting hydrogen but has not disappeared.” “She started hydrogen in mid August. I took the dimensions off of her MRI reports from her since then. Here is the drawing I made based on the dimensions.” “Hello Manuel, I believe molecular hydrogen has helped control my wife’s cancer. She has also had good luck with repurposed meds and supplements which kept her stable for 2 years. Two months after starting hydrogen her neurologist said she had no active cancer. 6 weeks later she had substantial reduction in the size of her lesion “.

          The Second case, again anecdotal, refers to the wife of a person you know benefiting from molecular hydrogen in Spain. For that, you gave me the patient e-mail to contact here. As soon as I find the time I will send an e-mail to ask for details.

          Kind regards,
          Daniel

        2. Hi, could you tell me how long the machine took to arrive once ordered, I imagine it took a long time, and I’m searching desperately for something quickly

          1. Hi Karen,
            Could you ask Daniel for my email and we can discuss molecular hydrogen? In my experience, the device takes approximately 4 days to arrive and the bank transfer to the company 4 days.

            Kind regards

  4. Hello, Daniel,

    My wife suffers CRC IV with mets in her liver. We are using 3000ml/min hydrogen and oxygen machine for her. Also, She also has 3 times high does V IV per week. Does the two counteract with each other? How should we benefits form the two synergistically?

    1. Dear Michael,

      I understand you are combining Vitamin C IV high dose with 3000ml/min hydrogen and oxygen. If the IVC dose is in the range of 50g/day given in 2-3 hours, the main anticancer activity related to that is expected to be of pro-oxidant nature as discussed here https://www.cancertreatmentsresearch.com/high-dose-vitamin-c-cancer/ On the other hand, Molecular Hydrogen is a strong anti-oxidant as discussed above.

      Due to this reason, in order to make this combo work well together I would lower the dose of IV C, to avoid triggering reactive oxygen species. In addition, if possible I would extend the administration time of Vit C intravenous. If not, I would just go for oral vitamin C at 10g for a person of 70kg (as used by Linus Pauling) taking 1 g every hour.

      Regarding CRC, have you seen the first case report on this list https://www.cancertreatmentsresearch.com/10-cases-of-complete-remission-from-stage-4-cancers-after-using-supplements-or-repurposed-drugs/

      Kind regards,
      Daniel

      1. Hello, Daniel,

        Thanks for your reply. May I know what is the volume you recommend for Vitamin IV considering we will use it the same day also for the hydrogen inhalation machine. Thank you very much.

        regards,

        Michael

      2. Dear Daniel,

        Also we have my wife to take Budwig diet which is considered pro-oxidants I think. Then I really don’t know how to adjust among them. Also, we plan to execute a DCA protocol for her. Any suggestions? Many thanks!

        regards,

        Michael

        1. Dear Michael,

          In general, we need for outstanding conflicts between the treatments otherwise we get crazy. In addition, anti and pro oxidant is just one perspective. In my view, there is no outstanding conflict between Budwig and the others you are using. With DCA there could be some as DCA increases ROS generation, but on the other hand DCA also has very positive impact on the micro environment (due to reduction of lactic acid) where Hydrogen and low dose Vit C adds major value, so it could make sense to combine them.

          Just check if DCA makes sense for CRC. Mebendazole would make very much sense there.

          Kind regards,
          Daniel

          1. Dear Daniel,

            Many thanks for your guidance. May we say, Monday to Wednesday using high does V IV without hydrogen whereas we use hydrogen from Thursday to Sunday without high does V IV? What is the interval required for fear of intervention? Bz low does V IV is foreign to us and we find it hard to administer.
            Thanks & regards,

            Michael

          2. Hi, Daniel,

            We have checked and found DCA is good for CRC, esp. synergetic with 5FU in treatment. Also, we put one tablet of Mebendazole in the Budwig diet as we know it is lipid soluble. One question: we found 3BP very interesting but don’t know if we can use it together with DCA and also we don’t know where to purchase the 3BP. Any serious side effects? May we have your precious instruction? Thanks & regards,

            Michael

  5. D, from the metabolic point of view this one seems pretty important. Hydrogen shifts energy processing.
    This certainly makes one start to wonder about what combinations might create an amplification. What would metronomic high dose Vitamin C (shutting down glycolysis energy) combined with hydrogen achieve? There are many potential metabolic strategies that we are all very aware of. Hopefully, this research will be done. Clearly, 3-BP and hydrogen could also be of interest.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7005324/

    1. Hi J,

      Thank you for your comment. Indeed, Hydrogen seems to touch nicely the metabolic aspects. Because it is such a strong anti-oxidant I would clearly avoid combining this with 3BP. If u remember, I mentioned that based on personal experience Alpha Lipoic Acid (given intravenously 3 days after 3BP delivery to a specific tumor) succeeded to stop the anti-cancer action of 3BP, while that did not happen when 3BP was given without being followed by ALA. This is why I would not combine 3BP with strong antioxidants.

      Kind regards,
      Daniel

  6. Something else that is interesting is that perhaps one could simply buy the hydrogen gas itself! A kg of hydrogen gas sells for ~$1-$10. One might be able to avoid the electrolysis altogether and just buy the gas. Hydrogen fuel cell cars need hydrogen to run.
    California is a big hydrogen distribution state. There are now many other places in Japan, Europe that are building out there green energy resources. This might be of interest to investigate further.

    1. Hi J,

      This is a very good point. I am not sure but doing the math will for sure give the answer to that. So I think the point is that if you need to use a gas like Oxygen or Hydrogen long term (and at high flow), it is not sustainable since bottles that contain the gas will only last for a few hours in general. Like with Oxygen generators, when a patient needs extra oxygen, he is given an oxygen generator at home and some bottles of oxygen for mobility.

      Kind regards,
      Daniel

  7. D, I think it is like this.

    A mol of H2 gas at standard pressure is 22.4 L.
    Above post suggests upper limit to strive for is 900 ml/minute.
    900 ml /min= (900ml H2/min * 1mol H2/ 22400 ml H2 ) = 0.04 mol H2 /minute.
    200 minute treatment /day = 200 minute * ( 0.04 mol H2 /minute) = 8 mol H2

    1 kg of H2 compressed gas = 1 kg H2 gas * (1 mol H2 gas/ 2 grams H2 gas) = 500 mol
    8 mol H2 Gas = 8 mol H2 gas * (1 kg H2 gas/ 500 mol) = 0.016 kg H2 gas

    Hydrogen gas for fuel cell cars is commercially available and costs ~$10/kg.
    Above calculations suggest that one would only need 16 cents per day of commercial hydrogen gas.

    One idea would be to actually obtain the hydrogen gas in a highly depressurized form.
    It is not necessary to have 10000 psi hydrogen gas. Perhaps one could have a 1 liter container
    that held 8 mol of H2 gas ( 22.4 *8 compression). What is also interesting is that now that we
    might be able to access a large amount of H2 gas, one could imagine taking baths with
    substantial amounts of H2 gas infused. One might be able to have a “cushion” at the bottom of
    the tub with many performations which continuously released hydrogen. Perhaps such a bath could
    last for hours; this could be very beneficial for melanomas etc..

    This is a very exciting development.
    I will be very interested to hear responses from others on this idea.

  8. Friends, without a doubt, hydrogen therapy can offer enormous therapeutic potential, but if we manage to find optimal synergies, we can speak of enormous efficacy. Maybe we could move these discussions to the forum in order to contribute more studies?
    My bet would be to combine hydrogen with:
    – Sodium phenylbutyrate (glataminolysis)
    -Magnesium gluconate + HCA + MCT1 … maybe valproic acid
    – Hydroxychloroquine (inhibit autophagy)
    -To further enhance the antioxidant effect with metronomic vitamin C or perhaps alpha lipoic acid?

    kind regards

      1. @Manuone, this is really great new about the patient that you know who has been helped by hydrogen treatment. Could you give us some brief background on the patient? How long did it take to notice a response? What was the treatment plan? What other cotreatments were on board?

        It makes me feel so great that some of the ideas that we discuss on the forum can help patients. Some many patients will stick to the mainstream treatments: many of which have never been found to be effective. I realize doing something innovative is often discouraged, though sometimes there really does not seem to be a big choice.

  9. Hi, I am looking for information on getting this therapy done in Canada, specifically out west. My husband has a Grade III oligodendroglioma, right front lobal. Diagnosed in 2006, has had three surgeries, then last march, 6 weeks of IMRT combined with Temozolomide, followed by another year of Temozolomide.
    Does anyone having any experiencing doing Hydrogen therapy in Canada? If so where? With who? And or what did the process look like?

    Thank you
    Jodi

  10. Hi Daniel

    We will be undertaking CyberKnife treatment to treat some of the brain lesions later in the week. Given that SRS works on pro-oxidant effects whereas H2 therapy works on antioxidant, I am thinking that it would be prudent to wait a while before commencing H2 therapy, otherwise it may serve to “rescue” the cancer cells.

    I am interested in your thoughts as to how long the pro-oxidant effect lasts for SRS and other radiotherapies? That will assist me in deciding when to introduce H2.

    Regards,

    Jun

    1. Dear Jun,

      I would consider ~7 days after radio but not before that.

      As you know, I previously discussed many treatment options that could support radio https://www.cancertreatmentsresearch.com/modulating-the-yin-and-yang-energy-of-cells-to-fight-cancer-pro-oxidant-strategy/
      If you have any question on these please let me know.

      Also, if you like to have a call to go through multiple questions, please let me know, and it will be my pleasure to speak with you, as always.

      Kind regards,
      Daniel

  11. jodi, many of the treatments that we discuss on the forum are at an earlier stage in development than what can be found in clinics. It is especially frustrating that many (especially 3-BP) have not progressed for decades. 3-BP was first announced as a strong anti-cancer treatment (in mice) in the early 2000s. I understand how this can place people in the absurd condition of considering needing to think beyond mainstream medicine. Most would much prefer to simply let others (who are highly qualified) take over. Sometimes this never seems to happen. The forum tries to recognize innovative ideas and then incubate them. Those caregivers coping with cancer have a great deal to manage as it is, I fully understand how placing such caregivers in the further role of clinical researcher is an excessive demand. Hydrogen treatment is a rapidly emerging area of interest as we are now only 2 months out from D’s first post, and then apparently a patient has already had some benefit from treatment. This is light speed fast for us. Usually we can take many months to even understand what we did right.

    1. As discussed below, the amount of hydrogen required cannot be delivered by such supplements. This is already an uncharted theory – I would follow what has been done in clinical trials (using inhalers) and would not go for other options delivering much lower amounts of Hydrogen.

      Kind regards,
      Daniel

    1. Hi Kamel,

      Hydrogen Peroxide is another therapy route that I will discuss when I find time. Regarding Hydrogen, I would go for what has already produced results (inhalers). Anything else comes on top but not as a main route – it’s clear that high doses are required for active cancers, dose that can only be generated by high flow generators such as used in the clinical trials and anecdotal reports mentioned by e.g. Manuel – see comments above. I would not spend my time and money with something else when fighting active cancer.

      Kind regards,
      Daniel

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