Glucose Absorption Inhibitors to Inhibit Tumor Growth

Background:

I am writing this post in the context in which multiple readers and contributors to this website have shown interest in the potential of drugs and supplements that have the capability to inhibit glucose absorption in cancer cells. I am glad to see this interest as I also find this subject very relevant and would like to thank Ergin for triggering this subject. I actually discussed this part of this subject more than a year ago, showing the (to me) huge potential of glucose absorption inhibitors such as Phlorizin in cancer treatment as already demonstrated in humans https://www.cancertreatmentsresearch.com/phlorizinphloretin-a-strong-glucose-transport-inhibitor/

As we often discussed on this website, glucose is extremely important for tumors. It represents one of the main energy source and some tumors, when deprived of glucose can die. And if they do not die, at least they will further grow much slower and will be weaker and susceptible to other treatments such as chemo. All these aspects are basic knowledge, so well know that there is no need for reference to support these statements. For example, PET scan works exactly based on the fact that tumors like so much glucose.

If next to inhibiting glucose absorption we can also inhibit mitochondria function in cancer cells, there is an even higher chance that the tumors will be affected. But this subject, related to mitochondria modulation, will be discussed in details elsewhere. For now, here are a few examples of mitochondria inhibitors: Pyrvinium Pamoate, Meclizine, Doxycycline, Metformin (Ref.), Canagliflozin (Ref.) (thanks to Helga for pointing this out), Oligomicin (Ref.). The first five are FDA approved drugs currently used for various illnesses with a clear safety profile.

Glucose absorption:

Going back to glucose absorption, it is known that glucose is transported into the cells via two classes of hexose transporters, namely,

  • the SGLT (sodium-dependent glucose transporter) family and
  • the GLUT (facilitative glucose transporter) family,

and that SGLTs transport glucose against the concentration gradient whereas GLUTs do so along the gradient (Ref.).

SGLT2 has a greater transport capacity and reabsorbs glucose in combination with sodium in the ratio 1:1. SGLT1 has a higher affinity for glucose and reabsorbs glucose in combination with sodium in the ratio 1:2. Note that both transporters are secondarily active owing to their dependence on the activity of the Na+/K+-ATPase for the active removal of sodium (Ref.) Also note that this is a connection point between sodium-based glucose absorption and the cardiac glycosides (such as oleander, bufalin, etc.) which are Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitors and as a result will also lower the function of SGLT1 and SGLT2.

The glucose transporters are very relevant for all the cells, since they represent the doors for the glucose to enter the cells.

Nearly all cancer types have some of these transporters over expressed in order to deal with the short-term high-energy required and develop fast. Because, cancer cells are using most of the glucose in an inefficient way, from the energy production point of view (that is called fermentation or glycolisis), they require large amounts of glucose and thus a large number of glucose transporters on their membrane.

However, it is very important to realize that in normal conditions most cancer cells are over-expressing GLUT transporters (specifically GLUT1) and very little SGLT transporter types. There is a large amount of literature supporting this (Ref.1, Ref.2, Ref.3, Ref.4, etc.). In addition, GLUT1 has been also shown to be very important for the most difficult to treat type of cancer cells population called Cancer Stem Cells (Ref.)

To have a feeling on the over expression of GLUT1 in various cancer cell types here is the protein atlas database showing that: http://www.proteinatlas.org/ENSG00000117394-SLC2A1/cancer

And here is the expression of SGLTs in various cancer cell types:

In line with the above links, indeed, it has been shown that not all the SGLT2 inhibitors can reduce the glucose absorption in cancer cells, as there are multiple types of transporters available on the membrane that can be different for different cell types. For example Canagliflozin, but not Dapagliflozin could decrease glucose uptake in prostate and lung cancer cells and it has been suggested to be a result of the fact that Canaglifozin is also an inhibitor of SGLT1 and possibly GLUT1 (Ref.). Beyond its impact on glucose transporters, Canagliflozin seems to also have an off target action against cancer cells via the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and as a result decrease mitochondrial respiration.

But things are not that simple …

In contrast to the above suggesting that SGLTs are not that relevant in cancer, there is a relatively recent study making things a bit more complex, as it shows that in some cases SGLT2 inhibitors can actually kill cancer cells such as those of pancreas and prostate via glucose absorption inhibition (Ref.). This is strange since most of the literature indicates that SGLT2 is not that relevant in cancer.

In order to make sense out of that, and unify both “sides” of the research, here is how we could understand it:

  • Glucose absorption via SGLTs requires the right sodium gradient that is “arranged” by the Na/K transporter but that costs energy (ATP).
  • In contrast to that, glucose import via GLUTs does not require energy as it simply depends on the glucose gradient.
  • Typically, when there is enough glucose in the blood, cancer cells will express GLUT1 only, since glucose will flow in the cancer cells without the need for the cell to spend energy
  • However, when there is not enough glucose in the blood the cancer cell has to “start the engine”, over express SGLTs  that require energy in order to extract the little glucose that is available around the tumor cells
  • This is how the scientists also understand the mechanism (Ref.)
  • If the above is true, you could expect that there will be more SGLT over-expression at the center of the tumor (hypoxic area) where there may be less glucose available. Indeed, the hypoxic area is also the one that will be most dependent on glucose since it can not use mitochondria to produce energy due to the lack of oxygen
  • And yes, if I look at the picture of the tumor, Canagliflozin (next to gemcitabine) used in this study lead to an increase necrotic area at the center of the tumor which is typically more resistant to treatments (Ref.)
  • Even more, Dapagliflozin (next to gemcitabine) cause the necrosis in the tumors that were larger, i.e. the higher the tumor, the more necrotic area (Ref.) which I would expect since it does not have impact on GLUT1 as Canagliflozin does, but is very specific to SGLT2 which will only start to be over-expressed when there is no glucose which should be the case even more at the center of large tumors.
  • Based on the above you could argue that we should chose between e.g. Dapagliflozin and Canagliflozin depending on the tumor size and glucose status in the body.
  • Therefore, Dapagliflozin may be more relevant for the very large tumors, while Canagliflozin may be more relevant for smaller tumors in people with high blood glucose levels (e.g. who do not follow a low-sugar diet and do not use other glucose lowering medication).

Glucose absorption inhibitors:

Therefore, inline with the literature, inhibition of glucose transport is a great tool to fight against cancer and also support other treatments such as chemo, radiation, new treatments such as 3BP, Salinomycin, etc. Best is to also combine it with a mitochondrial modulator such as those discussed above, e.g. Metformin.

From an effectiveness point of view, best would probably be to combine GLUT1 + SGLT2 inhibitors. But such combination may be too effective and that could be dangerous to normal cells as well.

This is why, I would focus first on GLUT1 inhibitors since GLUT1 is expressed in normal conditions and since GLUT1 inhibition by Phlorizin has already been shown to be effective in humans (Ref.). Here is a list of such inhibitors:

  • Phlorizin/Phloretin– probably some of the most effective GLUT1 inhibitors I know and already shown to lead to amazing results in humans (Phlorizin is also a SGLT inhibitor). The draw back is that it can only be used IV since the oral absorption is too low. Discussed in details here https://www.cancertreatmentsresearch.com/phlorizinphloretin-a-strong-glucose-transport-inhibitor/
  • Canagliflozin – according to the reference cited above, it also inhibits GLUT1. Fortunately, this drug is available as a tabled under the name Invokana. It has been recently approved for the use in diabetics. Wholesale price of Invokana is $8.77 per tablet, or $263.10 for a one-month supply. Retail pharmacy prices are about $349 to $405. (Ref.) This is a drug from the chategory of gliflozins
  • Verapamil – this is a “heart-drug” available anywhere across the world and cheap, also known for its capabilities to reduce the multi drug resistance of cancer cells and increase chemo effectiveness (Ref.). It has been found to also act as a GLUT1 inhibitor (Ref.)

Other GLUT1 inhibitors, but probably less effective compared to the above are Diclofenac via the inhibition of MYC (Ref.), Fisetin, myricetin, quercetin, apigenin, genistein, cyanidin, daidzein, hesperetin, naringenin, catechin, Graviola (Ref.)

If the patient is on e.g. ketogenic diet or if we can not access one of the GLUT1 inhibitors, we may want to consider a SGLT inhibitor such as:

SGLT2 inhibitors should fit nicely ketogenic diet since SGLTs are probably over-expressed in those patients.

Note: canagliflozin and derivatives has been patented as a treatment of cancer https://www.google.com/patents/WO2016134486A1?cl=en

Conclusion:

When having to deal with cancer, I would strongly consider the IV treatment with Phlorizin or the oral drugs such as Canagliflozin and Dapagliflozin. They could be used:

  • together with chemotherapy or radiotherapy to increase treatment effectiveness
  • together with new treatments such as 3BP, Salinomycin to increase treatment effectiveness
  • together with mitochondria inhibitors such as Metformin

References:

Functional expression of sodium-glucose transporters in cancer https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4522748/

Cancers require high amounts of glucose to grow and survive, and dogma is that uptake is facilitated by passive glucose transporters (GLUTs). We have identified a new mechanism to import glucose into pancreatic and prostate cancer cells, namely active glucose transport mediated by sodium-dependent glucose transporters (SGLTs). This means that the specific radioactive imaging probe for SGLTs, α-methyl-4-deoxy-4-[18F]fluoro-d-glucopyranoside, may be used along with positron-emission tomography to diagnose and stage pancreatic and prostate cancers, tumors in which the GLUT probe 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose has questionable utility. Moreover, we suggest, based on our results in mouse models, that Food and Drug Administration-approved SGLT2 inhibitors may be used to reduce the viability of pancreatic and prostate cancer cells in patients.

Verapamil inhibits the glucose transport activity of GLUT1 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20354917

Calcium channel blocker toxicity has been associated with marked hyperglycemia responsive only to high-dose insulin therapy. The exact mechanism(s) of this induced hyperglycemia has not been clearly delineated. The glucose transporter GLUT1 is expressed in a wide variety of cell types and is largely responsible for a basal level of glucose transport. GLUT1 also is activated by cell stress. The specific purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the calcium channel blocker verapamil on the glucose uptake activity of GLUT1 in L929 fibroblasts cells. Dose-dependent effects of verapamil on glucose uptake were studied using L929 fibroblast cells with 2-deoxyglucose. Verapamil had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on both basal and stress-activated transport activity of GLUT1. Basal activity was inhibited 50% by 300 μM verapamil, while 150 μM verapamil completely inhibited the activation induced by the stress of glucose deprivation. These effects were reversible and required verapamil to be present during the stress. Alteration of calcium concentrations by addition of 5 mM CaCl₂ or 4 mM EDTA had no effect on verapamil action. This study reveals the unique finding that verapamil has inhibitory effects on the transport activity of GLUT1 independent of its effects on calcium concentrations. The inhibition of GLUT1 may be one of the contributing factors to the hyperglycemia observed in CCB poisoning.

The diabetes medication Canagliflozin reduces cancer cell proliferation by inhibiting mitochondrial complex-I supported respirationhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27689018

These data indicate that like the biguanide metformin, Canagliflozin not only lowers blood glucose but also inhibits complex-I supported respiration and cellular proliferation in prostate and lung cancer cells. These observations support the initiation of studies evaluating the clinical efficacy of Canagliflozin on limiting tumorigenesis in pre-clinical animal models as well epidemiological studies on cancer incidence relative to other glucose lowering therapies in clinical populations.

GLUT1 as a therapeutic target in hepatocellular carcinomahttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19874261

Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most fatal cancers in humans with rising incidence in many regions around the world. Currently, no satisfactory curative pharmacological treatment is available, and the outcome is mostly poor. Recently, we have shown that the glucose transporter GLUT1 is increased in a subset of patients with HCC and functionally affects tumorigenicity. GLUT1 is a rate-limiting transporter for glucose uptake, and its expression correlates with anaerobic glycolysis. This phenomenon is also known as the Warburg effect and recently became of great interest, since it affects not only glucose uptake and utilization but also has an influence on tumorigenic features like metastasis, chemoresistance and escape from immune surveillance. Consistent with this, RNA-interference-mediated inhibition of GLUT1 expression in HCC cells resulted in reduced tumorigenicity. Together, these findings indicate that GLUT1 is a novel and attractive therapeutic target for HCC. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the expression and function of GLUT1 in HCC, available drugs/strategies to inhibit GLUT1 expression or function, and potential side effects of such therapeutic strategies.

GLUT, SGLT, and SWEET: Structural and mechanistic investigations of the glucose transporters https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4815417/

Glucose is the primary fuel to life on earth. Cellular uptake of glucose is a fundamental process for metabolism, growth, and homeostasis. Three families of secondary glucose transporters have been identified in human, including the major facilitator superfamily glucose facilitators GLUTs, the sodium‐driven glucose symporters SGLTs, and the recently identified SWEETs. Structures of representative members or their prokaryotic homologs of all three families were obtained. This review focuses on the recent advances in the structural elucidation of the glucose transporters and the mechanistic insights derived from these structures, including the molecular basis for substrate recognition, alternating access, and stoichiometric coupling of co‐transport.

Attacking the supply wagons to starve cancer cells to death https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4833639/

The constitutive anabolism of cancer cells supports proliferation but also addicts tumor cells to a steady influx of exogenous nutrients. Limiting access to metabolic substrates could be an effective and selective means to block cancer growth. In this review, we define the pathways by which cancer cells acquire the raw materials for anabolism, highlight the actionable proteins in each pathway, and discuss the status of therapeutic interventions that disrupt nutrient acquisition. Critical open questions to be answered before apical metabolic inhibitors can be successfully and safely deployed in the clinic are also outlined. In summary, recent studies provide strong support that substrate limitation is a powerful therapeutic strategy to effectively, and safely, starve cancer cells to death.

Use of canagliflozin and derivatives thereof in the treatment of cancer https://www.google.com/patents/WO2016134486A1?cl=en

The use of canangliflozin and derivatives thereof in the treatment and prevention of cancer is disclosed. Said compounds have been previously determined to be selective sodium glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors useful in the treatment of diabetes with effects that are similar to metformin. Canagliflozin has now been determined to activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibit the growth of a range of cancers. Further to this, use of canagliflozin in combination with other chemotherapeutics has now been determined to give rise to increased anti-cancer activity.

Preventive effects of the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor tofogliflozin on diethylnitrosamine-induced liver tumorigenesis in obese and diabetic micehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28430653

Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors are expected to ameliorate the abnormalities associated with metabolic syndrome including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor tofogliflozin on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease-related liver tumorigenesis in C57BL/KsJ-+Leprdb/+Leprdb obese and diabetic mice. The direct effects of tofogliflozin on human liver cancer cell proliferation were also evaluated. Mice were administered diethylnitrosamine-containing water for 2 weeks and were treated with tofogliflozin throughout the experiment. In mice treated with tofogliflozin, the development of hepatic preneoplastic lesions was markedly suppressed, and hepatic steatosis and inflammation significantly reduced, as evaluated using the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score, in comparison with the control mice. Serum levels of glucose and free fatty acid and mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory markers in the liver were reduced by tofogliflozin treatment. Conversely, the proliferation of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 protein-expressing liver cancer cells was not inhibited by this agent. These findings suggest that tofogliflozin suppressed the early phase of obesity- and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease-related hepatocarcinogenesis by attenuating chronic inflammation and hepatic steatosis. Therefore, sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors may have a chemopreventive effect on obesity-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

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139 Comments on "Glucose Absorption Inhibitors to Inhibit Tumor Growth"

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Ergin
Member

THANK YOU!
I must understand it:) ,again there was a big silence.You were working on this very valuable subject.
I have to say thanks to you for Humanity.

sirsna
Member

Thank You, Daniel, for this post!
Now I must think what and how I can add this to my medications list!

Alex
Member

Thank you very much!

Meech
Member

Thanks for the post Daniel.

Really seems like Metformin is synergistic with the vast majority of treatments.

Wondering
Guest

Thank you Daniel. Well structured!

Does anybody have a source for Verapramil?

ernemef
Member

Dear Daniel,
thank you for a great post.
I have read that cancer cells can survive glucose deprivation by switching to glutamine and even other sources. Do you have any opinions on this?
Regards Ernest.

marcosbomber901
Member

Dear Daniel
There would be no way to manage intravenous (IV) canaglifozin ,it would be even more effective not ?

Alex
Member

Dear Daniel.
How would this list of inhibitors fit optimally with DCA in your experienced view.
Many many thanks.
Alex

Ergin
Member

http://www.wjgnet.com/2220-6132/full/v3/i2/37.htm
I like glucose absorption inhibitors too much.
Especially the combinations with glycolitic inhibitors.And metformin is must in any treatment,for my thoughts.
There are lots of things to talk about them.
Please look at the links.
I am sure when people know what to search,evrything will be more clear.
I didnt know how many GLUT and SGLT and their importance in treatments.
https://www.google.ch/patents/US20140142056

Ergin
Member

Dear Daniel,
If you can find time please look at the 1st link.
I am sure you know nearly all drugs in the link but ,you ll like it.
I will write the other news tomorrow,i am on the way coming from chemo.
We have to talk with our new member Hectoria
also
Kind Regards
Ergin

Alex
Member

Glucose absorbtion ihibitors, i notice you listed Graviola as one other possible choice.
“they say it’s and adjuvant in chemotherapy, and i wonder what about Paw Paw?! “They” also say Paw Paw is stronger.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ED7yax2ee4c
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hD6MGd0Dz5o
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HoXNMNIzPt4
I wonder how these would fit in with DCA.

Many thanks our dear Daniel.
Alex

Jcancom
Member
D-glucose is taken up by Glut1, quercetin also uses it. “The flavonone, quercetin, is transported via GLUT4. Quercetin influx into GLUT4 is inhibited by high glucose or cytochalasin B concentrations (7). Conversely, quercetin inhibits glucose and ascorbate transport via GLUT1, -2, -3, and -4” “Another explanation for sugar transport asymmetry is that glucose accumulates in an endofacial compartment or vestibule. This promotes futile transport cycling, or recycling, that both lowers the maximal net influx rate and reduces the apparent Km for net glucose uptake” If only there were some futile cycling at the early stages of glucose handling! If there… Read more »
Ergin
Member

Dear J,
Could you please open a little bit this subject.
I am sorry but I am always using dictionary to understand your language.Too complex for me
Ofcourse you dont write these valuable findings for me and someone who is scientist can understand.
But i am wondering what is going on in your messages:)
In summary is inhibiting GLUT good or not?
Kind Regards
Ergin

Jcancom
Member
Erg, don’t get down on yourself! I really hope any fancy words that I might have used has not made you feel inadequate: with cancer we are all inadequate. I am highly motivated to do whatever I can to help you and others that are struggling with cancer. We all need to learn and grow together on this oncology journey. In all of human history, metastatic cancer has been understood to be completely incurable, though now we are starting to see daylight! It is so difficult for cancer patients to know what to do when they encounter this mountain of… Read more »
Jcancom
Member

Glut1 transporters are a main entry pathway of glucose into cancer cells. D has posted a very interesting article about phloretin as a way to block this mode of entry. I am excited also about his comment that SGLT transporters actually need ATP in order to work, while GLUT1 does not. My idea is if one were to avoid d-Glucose which is used by Glut1, then glucose fed to SGLT could deplete the cell’s energy supply. On first glance I would not see any toxicity issues with this.

How much ATP does SGLT need to transport 1 glucose molecule?

Jcancom
Member
Erg, this one is interesting. Reducing glucose or using ketogenesis might not be enough because the body has given itself a wide safety margin to protect itself from a low energy state. However, the below article talks about a maximum tolerated approach to glucose reduction. They are suggesting that a glucose level close to zero is possible and could have substantial anti-cancer effects, though it would need to be done in an ICU. The idea in the article could induce a cancer cure perhaps almost immediately. Without glucose, I am very sure what would be left of cancer. It would… Read more »
Ergin
Member

Thank you J for this very valuable link.Do you have full article?
I wonder did they use any SGLT inhibitors or not.
With phlorizin,they say that hypogylicemia does not occur.And no coma in articles.
I have an idea of using oral dapagliflozin with ketogenic diet for weeks.Than a golden shot of iv phlorizin with fasting.
What do you think?
Kind Regards
Ergin

Jcancom
Member
Thank you for picking up on this one, Erg! I am recycling it from the compass thread from a year or two ago. I think this is a very good one. I am not sure, how does one search for an article on sci-hub? Erg, this one was from Medical Hypotheses. This isn’t so much a clinical trial as a description of what might be possible. They conclude with “further research is needed”. The article notes that cancer patients typically are concerned about weight loss so the protocol that they suggest actually should not result in any loss of weight.… Read more »
Jcancom
Member
Erg, sometimes on these forums you have to throw an idea around a few times before it clicks with someone. Thanks for picking up on this one. It seems like an easy one and it could be helpful for a broad range of patients. From my reading of this, it makes a great deal of sense. This might actually be mimicing the approach used in other cancer treatments where people basically go on a cancer starving diet. The idea here is that you can have these benefits without the starvation part. Some people might make it to ketosis without reaping… Read more »
Jcancom
Member

Erg, I am really liking this one, though it really would be best to let the pros run with it.
I mean that is why they went to medical school isn’t it?

Do you think the Turkish clinic might do this one on the side?

Jcancom
Member

Apparently this is really not news at all.
Article talks of over a thousand spontaneous instances of cancer remission likely due to hypoglycemia.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=20702044

Alex
Member

What about Chromium & Vanadium to reduce blood sugar levels? Good idea for cancer sufferers?

Ergin
Member

Dear Daniel,
Have you heard about oxamate and phenformin?
May be better than DCA+Metformin
2014 Article.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3897486/
Our results suggest that phenformin has higher cytotoxicity and growth suppression towards cancer cells than metformin. Moreover, addition of oxamate not only reduces lactic acid production but also enhances the anti-cancer effect of phenformin. Our data suggest that this synergistic anti-cancer activity involves simultaneous inhibition of complex I and LDH by phenformin and oxamate, respectively.

Kind Regards
Ergin

Alex
Member

interesting

Helga
Member

Hi Ergin,

I also read your comments regularly and they are quite insightful, plus you have a good sense of humor. People learned about phlorizin from you, plus T4 depletion (or who suggested it first? but it is beside the point, anyway). I hope you keep posting!

Kind regards,
Helga

Ergin
Member

Hi Our Dear Helga,
I am totally misunderstood or i cannot tell it easily because of my language.
I dont go anywhere,The time is to begin phlorizin by friends here and Daniel’s kind helps.
People dont need my new findings,they need to hear feedback from T4 strategy and phlorizin which Daniel find and teach me.
Kind Regards
Ergin

Hectoria
Guest
Hi guys, I would be interested in what your thoughts are on my experience with fasting. Last year I ate no solid food for about 25 days, just green tea and some miso in hot water. I rapidly lost 14 lbs in the first 10 days, but my blood sugar was never really that low. After 10 days, despite no food and no calories, my weight remained stable, even putting on a few pounds, and my blood sugar was totally normal. I was consuming no more than 30 calories a day in the form of miso. I stopped the fast,… Read more »
Jcancom
Member
Hi Hectoria. I think we should make a forum topic for this. For whatever reason I have been unable to make to the forum, though perhaps you could start without me. I am hoping D will feel some pity for me and just email me my password. We could talk through the idea of “starving the cancer”. The article that I quoted to Erg goes into the different stages of starvation. In their staging it takes more than 14 days to achieve Stage 5 starvation. Yet as I noted above it really isn’t necessary to starve for this effect. The… Read more »
Ergin
Member
Dear J, I feel lucky that you entered this subject with a full energy. I have to expand my theory in my previous message.(My future strategy) I have made connections between 2 articles. 1-Ketogenic diet:Brain will use ketones while on glucose deprivation. 2-Oral gliflozins:Canagliflozin,dapagliflozin etc,A pre-medication for iv phlorizin. (May be it will reduce the dosage and time for iv phlorizin treatment.For total phlorinization.) They give oral dapagliflozin for 3 weeks to mice and than they give iv.After minutes there is no glucose inside the tumor.Not like in the phlorizin patent.(12-24 hours iv phlorizin treatment.) 3-Fasting for 1 day from… Read more »
Ergin
Member

Meech has a good experience with low blood glucose.
If i true remember his BG levels were as low as 50.

Meech
Member
Hi Ergin, Surprisingly, on a strict keto diet, my blood glucose levels mainly stayed up, and I have no idea why. Even in a fasted state where I’d go to the hospital early, for some complication, and wouldn’t eat for 17-18 hours, with my last meal being a high-fat (mostly oil) smoothie, my blood glucose rarely dropped below 4.5, and most of these tests were done at the hospital with a bloodwork panel, so you can trust they’re pretty accurate. I did have a couple days where it was 3.2, 3.3, 3.5, etc. But those were outliers. I really don’t… Read more »
Emad
Member

very nice article Daniel and awesome discussion from all friends here , I’m still following 🙂

I wonder if the combination of Sal + 3-BP + DCA + metformin + chemo will have any effect on highly glycolytic cancer cells ?

its my next protocol so I just feel that I still miss a glycolysis inhibitor here

having a weak spot in our protocol is something we should avoid

Phlorizin is the best option , if not , then maybe dapagliflozin , or 2DG

i should focus on this spot more than ever , this article did come in time 🙂

Ergin
Member

Dear Daniel,
Sometimes ago you told me to remember you the HSP and correlation between SGLT.
I have found an article,it is not about cancer.
But it makes me to thing why after hyperthermia,a sudden recovery occures.In this article the cause is SGLT1.
If i true understand.And my thoughts are still dont change about phlorizin.
”Taken together, the present results show that HS(Heat stress,43 degrees for 3 hours) elevates SGLT1 activity mediated via the TGF-beta1 signaling pathway and that the increase in glucose uptake is necessary to repair plasma membrane injury.”
http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/15577265
Kind Regards
Ergin

Helga
Member

Hi ERgin & Daniel,

I found this about phenformin: http://www.hkmj.org/system/files/hkm0802p50.pdf
can cause lactic acidosis! I wonder how it can treat cancer, after all, citric acid works against cancer by inhibiting lactic acid. Phenformin is still available in a few countries.

Cheers,
Helga

Ergin
Member

Dear Helga,
Also metfomin and sglt inhibitors can cause this.
We need regular blood counts to prevent lactic acidosis.But please dont forget the side effects of chemo.
And what we are dealing with.(cancer)
Ketogenic diet is not also too innocent as you know.
By the way,Are you still on citric acid?

Cheers
Ergin

Helga
Member

Dear Ergin,

Yes, I am still on CA. I feel it is still helping me. Recently I struggle more with my lung’s mucus. I take Wobenzym also plus beta-glucan and vitamin C (it seems to help with my lung problems), propolis, sage leaves, Budwig, lansoprazole.

How is your mom doing and how will you implement the phlorizin therapy?

Best wishes,
Helga

Jcancom
Member

D, I know this might be a sensitive subject for you, though would you like to talk about the 3-BP user Peter from Australia?

When I saw on the psi site that they made mention of his passing I was put out. There was no context to their comment. The
implication that one would logically draw from the statement was that 3-BP had not worked for him. In fact, Peter appears to have
very successfully coped for a number of years with metastatic illness.

anca
Member
Hi Daniel, I would like to say I admire you for writing so many interesting things on this page. I don’t know how you found the time to write so many things. I couldn’t read all this evening and some things are also hard to understand for me because they are so specific to medicine field which I am not familiar with. I am sure the oncologists couldn’t possibly know so many new things because they don’t have the time to read. From what I could understand Metformin is useful also for ovarian cancer? At the pharmacy they did not… Read more »
Alex
Member
Dear Anca, I’m not even a girl let alone a nice one like you 🙂 My point to saying that is that i got metformin with the same ease someone would go buy bread with. And it’s the same country, likely the same farmacy chain. Persistence! Ingenuity, ambition! – Should you still have problems like that, let me know i’ll have the meds sent to you in a blink of an eye for your dear mother. I too have a mother suffering if you read around, and i would hate to have someone tell me i can’t do something because… Read more »
Helga
Member
Hi J, I had a long train ride today without internet and this page was open in my browser. Also the article Ergin referenced https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3897486/ about “Synergistic Anti-Cancer Effect of Phenformin and Oxamate”. Very interesting combination. I finally understood why the combo needed, as phenformin and ‘biguanines’ generate lactic acid and oxamate will prevent that. Interesting that phenformin was in some cancer cultures a million times more effective than metformin! Possibly because phenformin is more soluble in lipids. I wonder how to get enough oxamate at a reasonable price? It looks like you’d need about 30 grams a day, based… Read more »
Helga
Member

Taking this train of though further, this is what I found: “Treating diabetic patients, A. Braunstein observed in 1921 that in those who developed cancer, glucose secretion in the urine disappeared. One year later, R. Bierich described the remarkable accumulation of lactate in the micromilieu of tumor tissues and demonstrated lactate to be essential for invasion of melanoma cells into the surrounding tissue. One year after that Warburg began his experiments that eventually ended for him with a Nobel Prize.” http://drsircus.com/cancer/sugar-cancer-growth-research/

Does anyone know if lactate is toxic or is it lactic acid? Or are they just indicators of cancer(ous processes)?

Alex
Member

Sadly i don’t have answers but it’s always good to see your comments here dear Helga.
Best wishes, thank you for everything.
Alex

Helga
Member

Hi Alex, thanks for responding and your kind words! It shouldn’t be too difficult to find out.

Actually, lactate dehydrogenase being overactive in cancers, lactate should be food/fuel for those.

cheers,
Helga

Alex
Member

Dear Helga,
I am always curious why you didn’t get tested yet.
Blood tests, eco, thermography, CT etc.
Do take care,
Alex

Helga
Member
Dear Alex, I have a gyn’s appointment for early June. My gp doesn’t think I have lung cancer so her sent me only to an X-ray, which I haven’t done yet. Also, you said X-ray didn’t show any tumor for your mom (how is she, by the way?). I did find some statistics that lung cancer shows with X-ray in 75% of the cases. I also read that a CT costs 2-3k US$ so maybe they want to save the costs on me. What kind of blood test would show cancer in general? What would you do if you were… Read more »
Wondering
Guest

hi Helga, do i remember well that you feared having ovarian cancer? CT and or MRI would be required if you have symptoms, push for it.

Alex
Member
Dear Helga, As always thank you for your kind words. I’m certain you have a warm heart and a beautiful mind. They are so evident here. As for your mom possibly suffering from cancer. Let’s not be negativist. Let us allow for doubt, and place the worse possibility away from us while we search for concrete answers. My mother was feeling very weak as well in the past, detox was a life saver! Detox changed her life in the past, for the best. Nutrition is a major issue. We eat a lot but do not get enough of what we… Read more »
Helga
Member
Dear Alex, Thanks for your kind and very thoughtful answer. You are absolutely right, I should push for some more accurate test. It may be small-mindedness from the doctor or my (or his) lack of conviction or indeed my fear of finding out. I have been reading about the T4 depletion strategy and something clicked in my mind: I have quite low blood pressure (111/76) and quite high pulse (80). I still may have a thyroid problem! I got it originally from a viral infection and it is still in me, I am sure. I still have a nodule in… Read more »
Alex
Member

Also what about lactate dehydrogenase ??
I always wonder if the budwig thing is a good ideea since it is made out of milk…. lactate… idk anymore.

Wondering
Guest

Hi Alex,
i have the same concern about budwig, cottage cheese is heavy in lactose..

Ergin
Member

We know very very less about LDH.

Ergin
Member

May be we have to open a post about LDH and cancer.It is a very complex and valuable subject.

Wondering
Guest

Hi Ergin, maybe. for me it is also a tumor marker.

Ergin
Member

Dear All,
I didnt find time but after a little bit search i found that oral phlorizin also works on lowering blood glucose.
I am sure our friends who likes searching will find more about it.
Here is the patent of oral usage of phlorizin.
https://www.google.com/patents/US6448232

Emad found powder form here.
https://www.badmonkeybotanicals.com/organic-apple-root-phloridzin-extract

And you can monitor your urine glucose,ketone etc by test strips.100 tests costs nearly 10 usd.
https://www.calvetsupply.com/fullsize/901/12

I hope it helps .
Kind Regards
Ergin

Ergin
Member
Ergin
Member

The videos after Glucose absorption inhibitors on mice.
http://www.pnas.org/content/112/30/E4111?tab=ds

Ergin
Member
Ph on mice: To assess this hypothesis, we used an apple polyphenol, Ph, which has been shown to be an inhibitor of GLUT2 [[21], [22]], and determined that targeting GLUT2 significantly inhibited MDAMB-231 cancer cell proliferation and migration in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of GLUT2 by Ph caused the cancer cells to undergo G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. The results showed that this inhibition the cytotoxic effects on cancer cells via GLUT2 inhibition was attenuated by pre-treatment with a dominant-negative p53 expression plasmid. Many previous reports have demonstrated that cancer cells have more stringent glucose requirements than normal cells. In… Read more »
Wondering
Guest

Hello Ergin,
i saw many comments from you in this regard. Which pill would be the best option – also from absorption point of view? cheers W

Ergin
Member
Thanks W for asking this question. We will find the answer alltogether.There is not too much data about it.It is not very clear for me which oral type is more effective and for which type of cancer.And the oral dosage for totally blocking glucose entry. What is clear for me is Cancer uses glucose for feeding,metastasis and the most interesting one is cancer uses SGLT for repairing itself.With a very simple medicine SGLT inhibitors, you can shut down the glucose entry before (for easilly killing) and after(for not giving energy to repair it self) treatments.Very effective before,during and after radiotherapy… Read more »
Ergin
Member

Correction:hypoglycemia(low blood sugar)

Ergin
Member

Dapagliflizin (forxiga) which is sold in pharmacies blood half is 12,9 hours.
That means one dose daily is enough.
Thousands of people is using it for diabets but not cancer thats interesting.
It is a perfect drug that we need now,but we can not take attraction on it.

ovidiu
Member

Not directly related (more complementary) to the topic… I looked into Stat3 inhibitors that could synergize with TKIs like erlotinib (and others, like gefitinib and crizotinib). Niclosamide was suggested by some articles, but it’s bioavailability isn’t great. I found another article about Atovaquone (an anti-malarial) that potently inhibits Stat3 and cancer stem cells. Also found one about Bedaquiline against CSC.

Gene expression-based discovery of atovaquone as a STAT3 inhibitor and anticancer agent.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27531676
Repurposing atovaquone: targeting mitochondrial complex III and OXPHOS to eradicate cancer stem cells.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27136895
Bedaquiline, an FDA-approved antibiotic, inhibits mitochondrial function and potently blocks the proliferative expansion of stem-like cancer cells (CSCs).
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27344270