Anti-cancer effects of 2-hydroxyoleic acid as a synthetic fatty acid
Minerval (2-hydroxyoleic acid) causes cancer cell selective toxicity by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation and compromising bioenergetic compensation capacity
This work tests bioenergetic and cell-biological implications of the synthetic fatty acid Minerval (2-hydroxyoleic acid), previously demonstrated to act by activation of sphingomyelin synthase in the plasma membrane (PM) and lowering of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) and their carcinogenic signaling. We show here that Minerval also acts, selectively in cancer cell lines, as an ATP depleting uncoupler of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos). As a function of its exposure time, Minerval compromised the capacity of glioblastoma U87-MG cells to compensate for aberrant respiration by up-modulation of glycolysis. This effect was not exposure time-dependent in the lung carcinoma A549 cell line, which was more sensitive to Minerval. Compared with OxPhos inhibitors FCCP (uncoupler), rotenone (electron transfer inhibitor), and oligomycin (F1F0-ATPase inhibitor), Minerval action was similar only to that of FCCP. This similarity was manifested by mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depolarization, facilitation of oxygen consumption rate (OCR), restriction of mitochondrial and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial fragmentation. Additionally, compared with other OxPhos inhibitors, Minerval uniquely induced ER stress in cancer cell lines. These new modes of action for Minerval, capitalizing on the high fatty acid requirements of cancer cells, can potentially enhance its cancer-selective toxicity and improve its therapeutic capacity.
It is interesting that 2-hydroxyoleic acid behaves like a protonophore.
Multifaceted Analyses of Isolated Mitochondria Establish the Anticancer Drug 2-Hydroxyoleic Acid as an Inhibitor of Substrate Oxidation and an Activator of Complex IV-Dependent State 3 RespirationThe synthetic fatty acid 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2OHOA) has been extensively investigated as a cancer therapy mainly based on its regulation of membrane lipid composition and structure, activating various cell fate pathways. We discovered, additionally, that 2OHOA can uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, but this has never been demonstrated mechanistically. Here, we explored the effect of 2OHOA on mitochondria isolated by ultracentrifugation from U118MG glioblastoma cells. Mitochondria were analyzed by shotgun lipidomics, molecular dynamic simulations, spectrophotometric assays for determining respiratory complex activity, mass spectrometry for assessing beta oxidation and Seahorse technology for bioenergetic profiling. We showed that the main impact of 2OHOA on mitochondrial lipids is their hydroxylation, demonstrated by simulations to decrease co-enzyme Q diffusion in the liquid disordered membranes embedding respiratory complexes. This decreased co-enzyme Q diffusion can explain the inhibition of disjointly measured complexes I–III activity. However, it doesn’t explain how 2OHOA increases complex IV and state 3 respiration in intact mitochondria. This increased respiration probably allows mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to maintain ATP production against the 2OHOA-mediated inhibition of glycolytic ATP production. This work correlates 2OHOA function with its modulation of mitochondrial lipid composition, reflecting both 2OHOA anticancer activity and adaptation to it by enhancement of state 3 respiration.
It means that 2-hydroxyoleic acid inhibits both beta-oxidation and glycolysis.
The role of membrane fatty acid remodeling in the antitumor mechanism of action of 2-hydroxyoleic acid
Pivotal role of dihydrofolate reductase knockdown in the anticancer activity of 2-hydroxyoleic acid
2-Hydroxyoleic acid induces Endoplasmic Reticulum stress and autophagy in various human glioma cell lines
Normalization of sphingomyelin levels by 2-hydroxyoleic acid induces autophagic cell death of cancer cells
Minerval (2-hydroxyoleic acid) may replace oleic acid in human tumor cell lines
2-Hydroxyoleic acid, a potent antitumor drug, induces disorder of cell membranes by altering cell lipid composition
2-Hydroxyoleate, a nontoxic membrane binding anticancer drug, induces glioma cell differentiation and autophagy
It can be said that 2-hydroxy-oleic acid (derivative of oleate) like 2-deoxy-glucose/2-DG (derivative of glucose) and di-chloro-acetic acid/DCA (derivative of acetate) are fake fuels for cancer cells!