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Cancer depends on fatty acids for ATP production

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medline
(@aliml2)
Joined: 9 months ago
Posts: 124
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Highlights

• All living cells produce ATP in mitochondria using the TCA cycle or fatty acid oxidation (FAO).
• However, cancer cells do not use carbohydrates for the TCA cycle because of the Warburg effect.
• Therefore, cancer cells must rely on OxPhos with the ETC using fatty acids supplied from blood vessels to produce ATP.

Abstract

Several metabolic pathways for the supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) have been proposed; however, the major source of reducing power for ADP in cancer remains unclear. Although glycolysis is the source of ATP in tumors according to the Warburg effect, ATP levels do not differ between cancer cells grown in the presence and absence of glucose. Several theories have been proposed to explain the supply of ATP in cancer, including metabolic reprograming in the tumor microenvironment. However, these theories are based on the production of ATP by the TCA-OxPhos pathway, which is inconsistent with the Warburg effect. We found that blocking fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in the presence of glucose significantly decreased ATP production in various cancer cells. This suggests that cancer cells depend on fatty acids to produce ATP through FAO instead of glycolysis. We observed that cancer cell growth mainly relies on metabolic nutrients and oxygen systemically supplied through the bloodstream instead of metabolic reprogramming. In a spontaneous mouse tumor model (KrasG12D; Pdx1-cre), tumor growth was 2-fold higher in mice fed a high-fat diet (low-carbo diet) that caused obesity, whereas a calorie-balanced, low-fat diet (high-carbo diet) inhibited tumor growth by 3-fold compared with that in mice fed a control/normal diet. This 5-fold difference in tumor growth between mice fed low-fat and high-fat diets suggests that fat-induced obesity promotes cancer growth, and tumor growth depends on fatty acids as the primary source of energy.

https://sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1044579X22001766

 

   
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medline
(@aliml2)
Joined: 9 months ago
Posts: 124
Topic starter  

MAS and FAO are major contributors to ATP production in cancer cells.

(A) Glucose deprivation medium for blocking glycolysis,
(B) Fluoroacetate (FA) for blocking TCA cycle,
(C) Aminooxy acetate (AOA) for blocking MAS system,
(D) Trimetazidine treatments for blocking FAO


   
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johan
(@j)
Joined: 4 years ago
Posts: 1196
 
Posted by: @aliml2

In a spontaneous mouse tumor model (KrasG12D; Pdx1-cre), tumor growth was 2-fold higher in mice fed a high-fat diet (low-carbo diet) that caused obesity, whereas a calorie-balanced, low-fat diet (high-carbo diet) inhibited tumor growth by 3-fold compared with that in mice fed a control/normal diet. This 5-fold difference in tumor growth between mice fed low-fat and high-fat diets suggests that fat-induced obesity promotes cancer growth, and tumor growth depends on fatty acids as the primary source of energy.

https://sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1044579X22001766

 

LOW-FAT/HIGH CARB, LOW SERINE, LOW LYSINE, LOW METHIONINE = OPTIMAL ANTI-CANCER DIET. Would you agree with this @aliml2 @daniel @jcancom


   
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medline
(@aliml2)
Joined: 9 months ago
Posts: 124
Topic starter  
Posted by: @j
LOW-FAT/HIGH CARB, LOW SERINE, LOW LYSINE, LOW METHIONINE = OPTIMAL ANTI-CANCER DIET. Would you agree with this 

... and low glycine, low leucine, Low glutamine, Low asparagine

https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7071719/

A diet high in carbohydrates and low in fat and protein is actually amino acids restriction. What is important is the inhibition of lipolytic agents and the reduction of free fatty acids.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipolysis


   
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johan
(@j)
Joined: 4 years ago
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Posted by: @aliml2
Posted by: @j
LOW-FAT/HIGH CARB, LOW SERINE, LOW LYSINE, LOW METHIONINE = OPTIMAL ANTI-CANCER DIET. Would you agree with this 

... and low glycine, low leucine, Low glutamine, Low asparagine

https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7071719/

A diet high in carbohydrates and low in fat and protein is actually amino acids restriction. What is important is the inhibition of lipolytic agents and the reduction of free fatty acids.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipolysis

Wasn't there a South African lady curing people of cancer with a grapes-only diet in the '40s and '50s? 😉

That said, today's commercial fruit clearly isn't the same fruit she used. I really believe one needs to eat thoroughly washed organic fruits and veggies only, especially for cancer patients or anyone suffering from a disease.

Thanks!


   
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johan
(@j)
Joined: 4 years ago
Posts: 1196
 
Posted by: @aliml2
Posted by: @j
LOW-FAT/HIGH CARB, LOW SERINE, LOW LYSINE, LOW METHIONINE = OPTIMAL ANTI-CANCER DIET. Would you agree with this 

... and low glycine, low leucine, Low glutamine, Low asparagine

https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7071719/

A diet high in carbohydrates and low in fat and protein is actually amino acids restriction. What is important is the inhibition of lipolytic agents and the reduction of free fatty acids.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipolysis

LEUCINE

Lowest: Blueberries, wild, frozen Leucine: 0mg

Highest: Egg, white, raw, fresh Leucine: 4233mg


   
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johan
(@j)
Joined: 4 years ago
Posts: 1196
 

Egg whites are also the highest food source of methionine:

https://nutritiondata.self.com/foods-001084000000000000000-1.html

 


   
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