Inhibition of autophagy triggers melatonin-induced apoptosis in glioblastoma cells
Apoptosis-inducing therapies have gained interest as promising experimental treatment strategies for GBM. A previous report described an increase in glioma patient survival caused by a radio-neuroendocrine strategy using radiotherapy plus melatonin compared with radiotherapy alone . Although several studies have shown that melatonin induces autophagy in colon cancer and hepatoma cells, there has been no direct evidence of whether melatonin is capable of inducing autophagy in human glioma cells. In the present study, we show that melatonin induced a completed autophagic flux in glioblastoma cells. Moreover, melatonin alone could not induce apoptosis, whereas disruption of autophagy triggered melatonin-induced apoptosis in glioblastoma cells.
Adding chloroquine to conventional treatment for glioblastoma multiforme: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Results: Median survival after surgery was 24 months for chloroquine-treated patients and 11 months for controls. At the end of the observation period, 6 patients treated with chloroquine had survived 59, 45, 30, 27, 27, and 20 months, respectively; 3 patients from the control group had survived 32, 25, and 22 months, respectively. Although not statistically significantly different, the rate of death with time was approximately half as large in patients receiving chloroquine as in patients receiving placebo (hazard ratio, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.21 to 1.26]; P = 0.139).
Chloroquine is an autophagy inhibitor
Liposomal Honokiol induces ROS-mediated apoptosis via regulation of ERK/p38-MAPK signaling and autophagic inhibition in human medulloblastoma