Circadian clock: Timing radiotherapy for specific times of the day could be beneficial in patients with high-grade gliomas
Hypoxia, metabolism, and the circadian clock: new links to overcome radiation resistance in high-grade gliomas https://jeccr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13046-020-01639-2
Radiotherapy is the cornerstone of treatment of high-grade gliomas (HGGs). It eradicates tumor cells by inducing oxidative stress and subsequent DNA damage. Unfortunately, almost all HGGs recur locally within several months secondary to radioresistance with intricate molecular mechanisms. Therefore, unravelling specific underlying mechanisms of radioresistance is critical to elucidating novel strategies to improve the radiosensitivity of tumor cells, and enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy. This review addresses our current understanding of how hypoxia and the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) signaling pathway have a profound impact on the response of HGGs to radiotherapy. In addition, intriguing links between hypoxic signaling, circadian rhythms and cell metabolism have been recently discovered, which may provide insights into our fundamental understanding of radioresistance. Cellular pathways involved in the hypoxic response, DNA repair and metabolism can fluctuate over 24-h periods due to circadian regulation. These oscillatory patterns may have consequences for tumor radioresistance. Timing radiotherapy for specific times of the day (chronoradiotherapy) could be beneficial in patients with HGGs and will be discussed.