Anti cancer drugs and supplements

Below is a piece of a recent nice article proposing a broad-spectrum integrative approach for cancer prevention and treatment. I find it interesting specifically because the article is suggesting a large list of drugs and supplements that are easy to access while addressing multiple anti cancer mechanisms.

The article is entitled: Designing a broad-spectrum integrative approach for cancer prevention and treatment http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1044579X15000887

Abstract: Targeted therapies and the consequent adoption of €œpersonalized€ oncology have achieved notable successes in some cancers; however, significant problems remain with this approach. Many targeted therapies are highly toxic, costs are extremely high, and most patients experience relapse after a few disease-free months. Relapses arise from genetic heterogeneity in tumors, which harbor therapy-resistant immortalized cells that have adopted alternate and compensatory pathways (i.e., pathways that are not reliant upon the same mechanisms as those which have been targeted). To address these limitations, an international task force of 180 scientists was assembled to explore the concept of a low-toxicity €œbroad-spectrum€ therapeutic approach that could simultaneously target many key pathways and mechanisms. Using cancer hallmark phenotypes and the tumor microenvironment to account for the various aspects of relevant cancer biology, interdisciplinary teams reviewed each hallmark area and nominated a wide range of high-priority targets (74 in total) that could be modified to improve patient outcomes. For these targets, corresponding low-toxicity therapeutic approaches were then suggested, many of which were phytochemicals. Proposed actions on each target and all of the approaches were further reviewed for known effects on other hallmark areas and the tumor microenvironment. Potential contrary or procarcinogenic effects were found for 3.9% of the relationships between targets and hallmarks, and mixed evidence of complementary and contrary relationships was found for 7.1%. Approximately 67% of the relationships revealed potentially complementary effects, and the remainder had no known relationship. Among the approaches, 1.1% had contrary, 2.8% had mixed and 62.1% had complementary relationships. These results suggest that a broad-spectrum approach should be feasible from a safety standpoint. This novel approach has potential to be relatively inexpensive, it should help us address stages and types of cancer that lack conventional treatment, and it may reduce relapse risks. A proposed agenda for future research is offered.

Table S3.   Approaches listed by hallmark for all hallmarks. Cross-validations are shown for each approach-hallmark interaction.

(AN, angiogenesis; AP, resistance to apoptosis; DM, dysregulated metabolism; EAG, evasion of anti-growth signaling; GI, genomic instability; IE, immune evasion; RI, replicative immortality; SPS, sustained proliferative signaling; TIM tissue invasion and metastasis; TME, tumor microenviroment; TPI, tumor promoting inflammation.)

Hall-marks Approaches Genomic    Instability   (GI) Sustained Prolifera-tive Signaling (SPS) Tumor-promoting Inflamma-tion  (TPI) Evasion of  Anti-growth Signaling    (EAG) Resis-tance  to Apoptosis (AP) Replica-tive Im-mortality (RI) Dysregu-lated Meta-bolism  (DM) Immune System Evasion  (IE) Angio-genesis (AN) Tissue Invasion and Metasta-sis  (TIM) Tumor Micro-environ-ment  (TME)
ANa Curcumin + + + + + + + + + + +
AN EGCG + + + + + + + + + + +
AN Enterolactone 0 + + + + 0 0 0 + + +
AN Kaempferol 0 0 + + + 0 + 0 + + +
AN Melatonin + + 0 + + + + + + + +
AN Oleanoic acid + 0 + + + + + + + + +
AN Resveratrol + + + + + + + +/- +/- + +
AN Silibinin + + + + + + + + + + +
AN Tripterine 0 0 0 + + 0 0 0 + + +
AN Withaferin A 0 + + + + 0 + + + + +
AP EGCG + + + + + + + + + + +
AP Gossypol 0 + + + + + + 0 + + +
AP Selinexor 0 0 0 0 + 0 0 0 0 + +
AP Triptolide 0 + + + + + + + + +
AP UMI-77 0 + 0 + + 0 0 0 0 + +
DM 3-bromopyruvate 0 + 0 + + 0 + 0 + + +
DM BPTES 0 + 0 + 0 0 + 0 0 + +
DM Dichloroacetate 0 + + 0 0 0 + + + + +
DM FX11 0 0 0 0 0 + 0 0 0 +
DM GW5074 0 +/- 0 + 0 0 + 0 0 + 0
DM Hexachlorophene + + 0 + + 0 + 0 0 + 0
DM Metformin + +/- + + + + + + + + +
DM PK15 + + 0 + + 0 + 0 0 + 0
DM Resveratrol + + + + + + + +/- +/- + +
DM TEPP-46 0 0 + 0 0 0 + 0 0 0 +
EAG Curcumin + + + + + + + + + + +
EAG Deguelin 0 + + + + 0 0 0 + + +
EAG EGCG + + + + + + + + + + +
EAG Genistein + +/- +/- +/- + + +/- +/- + + +
EAG Luteolin + + + + + 0 + 0 + + +
EAG Resveratrol + + + + + + + +/- +/- + +
EAG Withaferin A 0 + + + + 0 + + + + +
GI Carotenoids + + + +/- + + + + + + +
GI Isothiocyanate + + + + + + + 0 + + +
GI PARP inhibitor + + + + + + 0 0 + + +
GI Resveratrol + + + + + + + +/- +/- + +
GI Selenium + +/- + + + 0 0 +/- + +
GI Vitamin B + +/- + 0 0 0 0 0 +/- + 0
GI Vitamin D + + + + + + 0 + + + +
IE Astaxanthin 0 + + + + 0 0 + 0 + +
IE Astragalus membranaceus polysaccharide 0 0 + + + 0 0 + + +
IE Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide 0 + + + + + 0 + + + +
IE HS-1793 (polyphenol resveratrol analogue) 0 0 0 0 + 0 0 + + + +
IE Lentinus edodes polysaccharide 0 + + + + 0 0 + + + +
IE Trametes versicolor polysaccharide-k 0 0 0 + 0 0 0 + 0 0 +
RI Curcumin + + + + + + + + + + +
RI Dinacicilib 0 + 0 + + + 0 0 0 + +
RI EGCG + + + + + + + + + + +
RI Genistein + +/- +/- +/- + + +/- +/- + + +
RI Imetelstat +/- 0 0 + + + 0 0 0 0 +
RI Palbociclib 0 + 0 + + + 0 0 0 0
RI Perillyl alcohol + + + + + + + 0 + + +
SPS Curcumin + + + + + + + + + + +
SPS Genistein + +/- +/- +/- + + +/- +/- + + +
SPS Resveratrol + + + + + + + +/- +/- + +
TIM 5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrrolo[1,2-b]-pyrrazoles 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 + +
TIM Cordycepin 0 + + + + 0 + 0 + + +
TIM Eicosapentaenoic acid 0 + + + + + 0 0 + + +
TIM Gamma linolenic acid 0 + 0 + + 0 + 0 + + +
TIM Ganoderic acids 0 + + + + 0 0 0 + + +
TIM Grifolin 0 + 0 + + 0 + 0 0 + +
TIM Pachymic acid 0 + + + + 0 0 0 0 + +
TIM Polysaccharide (G. lucidum) 0 +/- + + + 0 + + + + +
TIM Silibinin + + + + + + + + + + +
TIM β-(1-6)-D-glucan (A. blazei) 0 + + 0 + 0 + 0 0 + +
TME Berberine + + 0 + + + + + + +
TME Curcumin + + + + + + + + + + +
TME Desoxyrhapontigenin 0 0 0 0 + 0 0 0 0 0 +
TME EGCG + + + + + + + + + + +
TME Genistein + +/- +/- +/- + + +/- +/- + + +
TME Naringenin + + + 0 +/- 0 + +/- 0 + +
TME Onionin A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 +
TME Piperine + + 0 + + 0 + 0 + +
TME Resveratrol + + + + + + + +/- +/- + +
TME Zerumbone 0 + 0 0 + 0 + + 0 + +
TPI Anthocyanins + + + + + + 0 0 + + +
TPI Curcumin + + + + + + + + + + +
TPI EGCG + + + + + + + + + + +
TPI Genistein + +/- +/- +/- + + +/- +/- + + +
TPI Lycopene + + + + + 0 0 0 + + +
TPI Resveratrol + + + + + + + +/- +/- + +

aAN, angiogenesis; AP, resistance to apoptosis; DM, dysregulated metabolism; EAG, evasion of anti-growth signaling; GI, genomic instability; IE, immune evasion; RI, replicative immortality; SPS, sustained proliferative signaling; TIM tissue invasion and metastasis; TME, tumor microenviroment; TPI, tumor promoting inflammation.

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2 Comments on "Anti cancer drugs and supplements"

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Helga
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Dear Daniel,

Just spotted your article with this useful table about treatments’ effects. Do you know what the – (minus) sign means in the table by any chance? Is it a proven non-effect (as opposed to + or 0) or is it a negative effect? I suppose it is the former.

I just wrote to Paul in the citric acid thread that there is a new finding about PARP inhibitors made sensitive to KRAS-mutant cancers if the ERK or MEK protein (kinases both I think) is inhibited: http://stm.sciencemag.org/content/9/392/eaal5148

Best,
Helga