3 Bromopyruvate

Other names: 3BP, 3-Bromopyruvic Acid
CAS number:1113-59-3


The info shared here came from multiple directions. That includes literature research, personal experience, a lot of ideas discussed and shared on Cancer Compass, discussion with a good number of professors and doctors, discussion with German clinics, discussions with patients.

My opinion:

For an update on my opinion related to 3BP please check the following post too: https://www.cancertreatmentsresearch.com/?p=725

I went through ups and downs with my opinion regarding 3BP anti-cancer effectiveness. But today, based on what I saw, based on the science behind, based on input from various doctors and clinics around the world using 3BP, and input from many patients, I believe 3BP has serious anti cancer potential. BUT, what I also learn more and more is that it has its challenges too. It is challenging to administer 3BP so that we get the best outcome. However, based on all the input I mention above, I think we are on the right track to identifying the right administration protocol.

The administration protocol can make the difference between failure and success. As a result, some doctors/clinics will stopped using 3BP because of very limited or even negative results and others are getting great results.

If 3BP is not used as a part of correct treatment protocol (e.g. including other glycolisis inhibitors and/or angiogenesis inhibitors), in some cases, according to a few US doctors, the 3BP treatment may lead first to a decline of tumor size and after that to a faster growth in the same way as chemo does in some cases. I believe this is because 3BP may kill the outside layer of tumor related to cells sensitive to 3BP (via MCT1 transporters), exposing the patient to highly glycolitic cells not sensitive to 3BP. If this view is true, in the next treatment step the highly glycolitic cells may potentially be killed by e.g. 2DG or high dose Vitamin C or their growth may be inhibited by angiogenesis inhibitors.

Here is the treatment protocol I currently believe can address some of the potential issues suggested above: https://www.cancertreatmentsresearch.com/?p=184

Warning: During the summer of 2016, a clinic in Germany using 3BP IV had an unfortunate experience, seeing three of its patients death in a short time frame of a few to several days. One of the treatments used for their patients was 3BP, next to others such as Vitamin C, etc. 3BP was suspected to cause the death of the patients (Ref.). However, it is difficult to understand how 3BP would have triggered such a result given that the clinic was using 3BP for more than a year to treat its patients. The case is currently under investigations. Association of this unfortunate event with 3BP is also difficult to understand since multiple clinics and patients around the world used 3BP for long time frames, even longer than one year, without reporting any side effects. Nevertheless, this event should make us realize that stage IV cancer treatments, whether conventional or not, represent a step in uncharted territory where the risks are little known or totally unknown.


The anti-cancer potential of 3BP has been demonstrated by Dr. Ko while working in the lab of Prof. Pedersen at Johns Hopkins University sometime around 2002. Here is a link to Prof. Pedersen’s lab. Dr. Geschwind who at that time was working at Johns Hopkins University as well, publish his own patents in addition to those of Dr. Ko. As a result, there were two groups of researchers claiming the rights and both created their own company.

As a side note, I did have a few e-mail conversations with Prof. Pedersen and I appreciate his great honesty. I am also very  impressed to see how he is always giving the whole credit to Dr. Ko for the discovery (while to my knowledge, most in the academic world would not do the same). Here is a comprehensive presentation of prof. Pedersen at the NCI and NIH in Unated States. Interestingly, Prof. Pedersen sent a personal letter to President Obama about this matter on January 22, 2013. The president’s mother died of ovarian cancer at the early age of 53. Months later, Prof. Pedersen had still received no response from the president. (Ref.)

Regarding the two main companies associated with the patents on 3BP, that of Dr. Ko is not very visible. However, while not visible, I think Dr. Ko is conducting clinical trials by supporting some doctors, mostly outside of the US, with both the administration protocol and the formulated 3BP. Dr. Ko’s company is called KoDiscovery and is located in Baltimore,  Maryland, United States. What is also clear is that she was the one who supported the first known application of 3BP in humans which also had great success (see case report below). Dr. Geschwind, on the other hand, has gained FDA approval with his company Presciencelabs intending to soon start clinical trials (this was stated in 2013 and three years latter there is still no trial). The patent battle seems to be the reason why things are moving so slowly.

Here are recent news (Nov 2015) related to the legal discussions between the inventors: http://holmansbiotechipblog.blogspot.ca/2015/11/court-dismisses-disaffected-professors.html

There are so many points to discuss about this substance but here are the most relevant points in my view:
– this is a substance with good potential against cancer
– it has clear science behind it and there is a lot of academic research supporting its potential
– it has been used on animals with great success
– it has been used on humans with success (both published and unpublished reports used with effectiveness on: liver cancer, melanoma, lung cancer, adrenal cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer, etc.)
– it is a very low cost substance
– it can be easily accessed
– it is water soluble so that it can be administered via IV, orally, topically, via nebulizer, or enema
– it is relevant for most types of cancers: it is a metabolic treatment (inhibiting energy production in cancer) and not genetic – this means that the response is not dependent on the very complex genetic profile
– a requirement is that the cancer is visible on PET – however there is no certainty that all cancers visible on PET will respond. In addition to the PET visibility, it needs to have an expression of the MCT1 transporters (see below under Mechanism)
– it is toxic to cancer cells and non-toxic to normal cells through MCT1 selectivity (it is non toxic at the right dose which is discussed below)

Some of the main challenges related to this substance are that its stability is very limited, and it is an acidic substance. The stability declines when temperature increases and when the pH of the solution in which 3BP is mixed increases. Light will also negatively affect its stability.

When delivering to humans, the acidity has to be reduced, i.e pH of the solution has to be increased, which in turn will reduce its stability. However, there are ways to balance those aspects so that the substance can be administered to humans at an acceptable pH while still being effective. There are several patents addressing that, and Ko’s patent is one of those.

Case reports

1. Dr. Ko provide the 3BP  used for the first time officially on humans, by Prof. Vogl. Specifically, it has been administered to a Dutch boy in 2012 at Frankfurt University in Germany, via a technique called TACE, administrating 3BP locally to the liver. The boy was in a terminal phase (liver cancer) and a few applications of the 3BP via TACE succeeded to kill his cancer. As a result the boy had his life extended. The boy passed away a few years later due to a reason other than cancer. What is extremely important is that the cancer had been eliminated and this was a huge result.  Here is the published case. The intervention was performed by Prof. Vogl.
It is amazing that the treatment had such great success in the context that conventional medicine had nothing to offer and that society did not react to this and push 3BP fast to application on humans. However, there is an entire world that has been developed “underwater” and in this world 3BP is today applied on humans even via TACE.

2. 3BP has been applied on a late-phase melanoma cancer patient, via IV administration, at a hospital in Egypt (read the publication here). The patient did not survive due to extensive lung damage caused by cancer, but importantly, the 3BP succeeded to completely deactivate the cancer. Next to showing the high relevance of 3BP in eradicating cancers relying on glycolysis, this report also shows that the effectiveness of such pro-oxidant strategies can be strongly supported by concomitant depletion of glutathione with common drugs such as paracetamol (acetaminophen in US and Canada). (Note: it is well known that glutathione is one of the main factors leading to resistance of cancer to pro-oxidant therapies, and I am wondering why cancer patients do not typically receive paracetamol specifically administered before the administration of various chemotherapies).

Anecdotal reports/stories

Besides the liver cancer and melanoma cases reported in the literature, here are a few examples of stage IV cases that I am aware of:

prostate cancer: a cancer scientist for 30 years treating his prostate cancer during chemo treatment. Chemo alone had no anti-cancer effect. Adding 3BP + paracetamol (used to reduce glutathione) lead to decline in PSA level. He used oral administration only at 2mg/kg/day (solution at pH 4 to 5). Treatment at home.
breast cancer: a 40 to 50 years old lady with various metastases using a few IVs and intensive oral and topical administration (unknown dosage). She was given a few months to go and after about one to two months treatment many of her tumors were gone. 
– adrenal cancer: one month treatment IV (2x/week) led to a reduction of tumor markers of about 10% and a reduction of tumor of 16% in a month as shown on CT scan.
lung cancer: about one month oral and topical administration leading to eradication of a one cm tumor in the lung and 50% decrease of a lymph note. Treatment at home.
pancreatic cancer: Patient utilized 3BP, IV€™s, an oral protocol, hyperthermia, EWOT, fresh green juices, colonics, etc. This led to serious reduction of the tumor markers. Case reported at Dayspring Clinic
breast cancer: another patient treated and reported at Dayspring Clinic
– lung cancer – extensive stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC): 3BP + Salinomycin treatment during about one month leading to complete disappearance of SCLC as shown on CT. Treating doctors were Dr. Jason Williams in Bogota, Dr. Mark Rosenberg in the U.S. and Dr. Leonardo Gonzalez at a clinic in Columbia. Reference.

In many cases, after the first 3BP IV administration, a reduction in pain has been observed.

Note: also to my knowledge there were patients treated with 3BP and not responding. As we will see below, besides administrating 3BP in the right way, the key for 3BP action is the expression of MCT1 which if not present may also be forced with various supporting treatments.


3BP is generally presented as an inhibitor of glycolysis (one of the major mechanisms for energy production in cancer) and has shown remarkable efficacy in not only preventing tumor growth, but even eradicating existent tumors in animal studies and in humans. Its mechanism of action is still a matter of debate but in general it is believed to be an alkylating agent, inhibitor of HK2 enzyme, which is essential in cancer cells for both glycolysis and respiration.

In order to get into the cancer cell and inhibit the HK2 enzyme, 3BP seems to use the MCT1 transporter (Ref) which is over expressed in many cancers visible on PET scan. Highly glycolytic cancers are producing a lot of lactate as a result of the high glycolysis. Lactate together with a proton is pushed out of the cancer cell through MCT4 transporters. As a result cancer cells are also pushing out protons in order to maintain their high intracellular pH. In turn this increases the amount of lactic acid (and thus the acidity) around the tumors. In time, if the outside layer of cancer cells have also access to oxygen, they may develop the capability of using lactic acid as a source of energy for the respiration process. This means that they will start directly importing lactate, through a transporter located on their membrane (i.e. MCT1), convert that into pyruvate and use that further to produce ATP. These are the cancer cells that are believed to be sensitive to 3BP. Why? Because 3BP has a chemical structure such that it can be transported through the same transporter (MCT1) through which lactic acid is imported. Since MCT1 is over expressed in cancers, 3BP will selectively be absorbed by the cancer cells (like we discussed not all but those who have MCT1) and will not affect the normal cells. Understanding this mechanism has great implications on how 3BP administration will be supported.

What we can understand from the above is that the acidic environment around the tumors is supporting 3BP effectiveness and treatments of patients with alkaline substances such as NaBic (e.g. Simocini protocol) should be avoided during the 3BP administration. Next to that, oxygen is required for the cell respiration and thus for the existence of tumor cells that are sensitive to 3BP. Of course, we should avoid any inhibitor of the MCT1 transporter. I will discuss them more in the “Antagonists” section below, but some of them are Ibuprofen, Quercetin, Statins, etc.

In some special cases, 3BP may cross BBB (blood brain barrier):
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1220552/pdf/10510291.pdf   (see page #14)
Starvation should help on this line.

3-BP has non-glycolytic targets as well, such as V-ATPases 20, SERCAs 24, Carbonic Anhydrases 51 and HDACs 52 (Ref.)

Here is a nice overview on the relative expression of MCT1 in cancer cell lines (in red box) and their normal tissue of origins (in white box):

MCT1 expression


In glioblastoma cells, it takes about 3-4 hours to reach a high level of ATP depletion, after the cells were exposed to 3BP: Refrence

Here is a good discussion on “Enhancing 3-Bromopyruvate Toxicity in Tumor Cells By Inducing Hyperglycemia” http://pharmacologia.com/abstract.php?doi=pharmacologia.2013.571.575


3BP in its raw state is highly acidic.

If the solution to be administered is prepared well, there should be no concerns. People have been treated for months with no issues. No specific side effects are observed. However, note that long term side effects are not expected but also not known.

If the solution is not prepared or administered in the right way, various issues may emerge from inflammation of the veins to anything that an acidic substance may do in the body. This is why both the pH combined with the administration time have to be balanced.

If a cancer treatment is very effective in killing cancer cells, it may trigger an effect called Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS) which may include one or more of the following:  a high blood potassium, high blood phosphorus, high blood uric acid and high urine uric acid, low blood calcium, and consequent acute uric acid nephropathy and acute kidney failure. In case this happens, here is what can be done. This applies for any effective treatment including chemotherapy (when that is effective).

Preparation & Administration

Substance used: 3-Bromopyruvic Acid at purity >95%, preferably >98%. CAS Number 1113-59-3.
Depending on purity, at 95% 3BP is orange crystals, and at 100% white crystals. It can be administered topically, nebulized, taken orally, or by IV. Below are the formulations I am aware of and like all the content I share here it comes with my disclaimer:


– 100mg 3BP mixed with 2ml water (preferably distilled but not necessarily) in a glass vial
– to the above solution add 50mg sodium bicarbonate (NaBic) powder and mix
– to the above solution add 4ml DMSO
– the resulting solution is applied one or several times/day in the tumor area; if the tumor is at the surface, it can be started with one tumor only and observe the reaction – adapt applied dose accordingly

Tools and materials needed for the above:
digital scale that measures 1mg
DMSO – can be found at various sources on the web. Some of the best is claimed to be this one but this should also be fine.
NaBic – can be found at various sources on the web, for example here


– 2mg/kg to 4mg/kg 3BP (for example, a person of 60kg would need 12omg if he/she intends to use 2mg/kg)
– 3BP is mixed with drinking water until pH of the solution is about 4 (bets is to use water with as little chlorine (Cl) as possible, since Cl is displacing the bromine in the 3BP) – some are using pH as low as 3 and state not to have side effects but I would stay with 4
– drink every morning one hour before eating (some split the dose in two or even in three and take one part in the morning and one in the evening before dinner)
– a few times/week use pre and probiotics as 3BP may also kill teh good gut bacteria
– as with anything I would always start at lower dose, i.e. 0.5mg/kg and build up to the target dose

My understanding is that most of the people have no issues with this – some people may vomit after the first times but that seems to go away after several days (we had no issue with it)

Update 20160104I am aware of 3 major options for the mixture of oral 3BP:

1. distilled water – this will require probably about one liter of water to get about 2mg/kg 3BP to a pH of about 4 to 5 – the drawback of this options is that it has too much water
2. ~100-200 ml distilled water + 2mg/kg 3BP + NaBic enough to get to a pH of about 4
3. ~100 ml commercial water (such as Evian) +2 mg/kg – add water until pH of the resulting solution is 4 to 5 – the drawback of this option (I only now realize) is that it has Cl inside that will displace bromine from 3BP

Tools and materials needed for the above:
digital scale that measures 1mg
pH measurement tool (preferably an electronic version) available on e.g. eBay or Amazon
– optional a system for controlling water composition: http://www.waterstreetstations.com/


– 44mg 3BP add 5 ml water (distilled if possible or low Cl amount) and mix
– add 30mg sodium bicarbonate powder (to increase the pH) and mix
– add the above solution (5ml water+3BP+NaBic) to 15ml water
– this should lead to a solution with a pH between 6 and 7
– check pH and make sure is not below 6 so that is friendly to the lungs
– we use 5ml of the solution above which is the max that can go into our nebulizer at one time, and add to this 10 drops of DMSO
– the solution above should be OK and represent no danger if the pH is as indicated
– if everything is good the 3BP concentration can be increased as long as the pH is maintained between 6 and 7

Any modification of the dose should be done step by step and the reaction to that observed.

Tools and materials needed for the above:
digital scale that measures 1mg
pH measurement tool (preferably an electronic version) available on e.g. eBay or Amazon
DMSO – can be found at various sources on the web. Some of the best is claimed to be this one but this should also be fine.
NaBic – can be found at various sources on the web, for example here
Nebulizer here is one that we use but any should be good


Note: My ideas on 3BP treatment strategy is discussed on a different page – click here to get there 🙂

This administration method requires more discussion:

Unbuffered: One way to administrate 3BP is unbuffered, which is the method used in Egypt for the treatment of the melanoma patient (Ref). They saw impressive results and that is a good reference point for the effectiveness of this method. However, because the solution is unbuffered, the administration time has to be longer otherwise the patient will be put in danger. (This is why probably most of the clinics will not use this method since each patient would require to stay longer in the clinic while the clinics prefer shorter times.) I will refer to the target dose where effectiveness is expected but it should always be started at lower doses and increased if no adverse reactions are observed. This is how this can be prepared:

– target dose is 2mg/kg to 2.5mg/kg
– take the 3BP powder as measured with a digital scale and add in a sterile cup/vial. If the choice is 2mg/kg and the patient weighs 60kg, there will be a total of 120mg to be used for an IV
– mix the powder with 20ml sterile water for injection (not saline!)
– when the solution is well mixed (i.e. no 3BP powder visible) take all the solution into a syringe (if we do not have a 20ml syringe we may need to perform this action multiple times but if we have 20ml syringe, we will need to perform it only once).
– take out the used needle and instead put a o.2um sterile filter on the syringe – at the other side of the filter mount a new sterile needle.
– inject this 3BP solution into the 500ml NaCl (saline) bottle/bag (do not reduce to 250ml because it will be even more acidic).
– put aluminum foil around the NaCl bottle/bag so that the exposure to light is limited.
– administer this solution in about 2.5 hours via a port-a-catch/port/PICC (if this solution is administrated via the arm directly into the vein, there may be inflammation developing in time and the veins will not be accessible for IV for long time before they recover) – this time frame should be respected and not shortened.

Buffered (i prefer the un buffered approach):

– target dose is 2 mg/kg – a little higher can be used in the buffered version
– take the 3BP powder as measured with a digital scale and add in a sterile (or very clean) cup/vial. If the choice is 2mg/kg and the patient weighs 60kg, there will be a total of 120mg to be used for an IV
– mix the powder with 20ml sterile water for injection (not saline!)
– when the solution is well mixed (i.e. no 3BP powder visible) take all the solution into a syringe (if we do not have a 20ml syringe you may need to perform this action multiple times but if we have 20ml syringe, you will need to perform it only once).
– take out the used needle and instead put a o.2um sterile filter on the syringe – at the other side of the filter mount a new sterile needle.
– inject this 3BP solution into the 500ml NaCl (saline) bottle (not 250ml because it will be even more acidic) and shake the saline bag gently.
– next, inject NaBic 8.4% solution: for every ~60mg 3BP I use 1ml  NaBic 8.4% solution. Therefore, if 120mg 3BP is used, 2ml NaBic 8.4% solution will have to be added. After that we need to shake the bottle/bag gently. Note that to my knowledge, Dr. Ko doesn’t like to use NaBic. She is using other buffers. However, note that 3BP solutions should never be neutralized with concentrated solutions of strong bases such as NaOH because the high concentration of hydroxide ion directly displaces the bromide, rapidly producing 3HP (Ref.)
– put aluminum foil around the NaCl bottle/bag so that the exposure to light is limited.
– administer this solution in about 2.5 hours via a port-a-catch/port/PICC (if this solution is administered via the arm directly into the vein, there may be inflammation developing in time and the veins will not be accessible for IV for a month or so before they recover) – this time frame should be respected and not shortened.

– best to prepare the 3BP solution before the IV, and administer asap.
– best to limit the exposure of the solution to light – if possible administer in a room with low intensity of light – we can wrap the saline bag in aluminium foil as well.
– NaBic addition will decrease the stability of 3BP in solution. As a result it is better if we split the dose in two bottles and prepare the second once the first is finished, e.g. if a total of 120mg 3BP is intended to be administrated, first add 60mg 3BP to a saline bag of 250ml and 1ml NaBic 8.4% and administrate in one to one and a half hour and than prepare and administrated the other 60mg 3BP in the same way. In this way we will get the most out of the IV.

Tools and Materials needed for the above:
– digital scale that measures 1mg
– a Port-A-Catch, port or a PICC line installed (administration in the arm is possible according to the Egypt-case but will lead to inflammation soon – not recommended)
– 0.2um sterile filters for syringe
– glass vials to mix 3BP with water for injection, like this or similar
– Of course there is a need for all the typical stuff required for IV like saline (250ml and 500ml bottles), delivery kit, syringes, needles, water for injection. In Germany everything can be ordered online from here 
– Some bottles of NaBic solution 8.4% will also be required – here is an example

Administration Protocol and Treatment Strategy has been discussed on the following page: https://www.cancertreatmentsresearch.com/?p=184

Source & Cost

There are many suppliers selling 3BP on the web, and most is manufactured in China. It is easy to order 3BP on Alibaba but is a bit more difficult to know which source to trust.

I personally believe that the difference between various sources is related to the following:

– manufacturing conditions – that included the environment in which 3BP was produced and the elements that have been used in production. This may be reflected in the purity level and the rest of components that are in the product we ordered, i.e. rest of 3% if the product has 97% purity
– storage conditions – 3BP has to be stored around 4C. I can imagine that not many of them will have the right storage capabilities next to the fact that many from China are not the manufacturers but trading agencies.

I do know some people using Chinese version even for IV, but I would not do that. Myself, I have some Chinese version for backup but always use the western version. It would be best if for IV the source would be at the level of Sigma Aldrich or similar. The difficulty with Sigma is that they only sell it to businesses or academic institutions. So anyone who would like to have Sigma products, has to have a company and a business address (they always first check the address on Google map – that is their first filter) or represent a university. If that is not the case, we may find a friend with a company or somebody working or studying at a university.

In conclusion,
– if we order from China we need to make sure we have a recommended supplier from whom someone else already ordered.
– for IV, western sources is the way (if possible, not only for IV).
– since recently there is also a source (pharmacy) in Europe/Germany who would sell IV ready solution – vial of 200mg at 30 euro – Update September 2016: This option is not available anymore

Regardless of the source, price is so little that it doesn’t need to be discussed here.

Relevant Literature

– Check the reference list on the following section of this site: https://www.cancertreatmentsresearch.com/?p=184
– Thesis from Heidelberg on 3BP killing pancreatic CSC. Reference
– In renal cell carcinoma, ccRCC, the activity of most other pathways than that of glycolysis has been shown to be reduced and is expected to be highly sensitive to 3BP (Ref.)
– A good list from Cancer Cure
– the inhibition of CA-IX (which is easy to be done), in combination with a hexokinase II inhibitor, may be therapeutically useful in patients with HCCs that are aggressively growing in a hypoxic environment (Ref)

Synergists & Antagonists

A good part of my ideas have been discussed in this post and others here.

Synergistic, Complementary or Supporting:  Curcumin, Curcumin22DG, Glutamine Deprivation e.g. Phenyl Butyrate, Chloroquine, Paracetamol/acetaminophen, Methyl Jasmonate, Fasting, Hypoglycemiareduction in extracellular pH enhanced 3-BrPA uptakeButyrate,  Lactate, Ketosis, Exercise, TestosteroneAcetazolamide, Citrate, Citrate2, Rapamycin

Will make tumors more sensitive to chemo due to ATP depletion http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/early/2011/12/20/0008-5472.CAN-11-1674.full.pdf
Inhibition of glucose turnover by 3-bromopyruvate counteracts pancreatic cancer stem cell features and sensitizes cells to gemcitabine http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25015789
Stalling the engine of resistance: targeting cancer metabolism to overcome therapeutic resistance http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23610447

Antagonists: All the MCT1 inhibitors such as Quercetin, Luteolin, Atorvastatin (and other statins), Diclofenac, Phloretin, Naringenin, Apigenin, Genistein, Ibuprofen, Silybin, Disulfiram?

What is not clear to me yet is whether those drugs/supplements that will reduce mito ATP production should be used or not. Example of such elements: Metformin, Paw Paw/Graviola, Doxycycline. Some say yes and some not, due to various reasons. To be clarified.

Clinics Treating Patients with 3BP

US: Dayspring Cancer Clinic
My review: Comprehensive treatment around 3BP. Adding various other treatments to increase effectiveness in case sensitivity of specific cancer is not there or is limited. I recommend this clinic.

US: Advanced Rejuvenation Institute
My review: Unknown

Canada: Cancerimmunotherapycentres
My review: Unknown

Forums on 3BP:

Cancer Compass  – Inspire – Longecity

Other relevant links:

Cancer Cure Medicine – Is a Cancer Cure Being SuppressedWehaveacure – TheCancerCure – Cancer Cured, Again – War on Cancer

Reference on formulation and stability (fore more references see https://www.cancertreatmentsresearch.com/?p=184)

The antitumor agent 3-bromopyruvate has a short half-life at physiological conditions

Composition and method for the efficacious and safe administration of halopyruvate for the treatment of cancer This invention provides compositions and methods for the treatment of cancer. An inhibitor cocktail buffer includes at least one sugar, a non-potassium containing buffer, and an inhibitor:

1 Water only 0.33
2 Glycerol, 1% 0.34
3 Inositol, 4% 0.44
4 Sorbitol, 55% 0.47
5 Sodium Phosphate, pH 7.4, 0.5 M 0.17
6 All four agents above 1.00

Therapeutics for cancer using 3-bromopyruvate and other selective inhibitors of ATP production The present invention relates to methods of treating a cancerous tumor using selective inhibitors of ATP production. The present invention also relates to pharmaceutical preparations comprising such inhibitors and methods for administering them intraarterially directly to a tumor, as well as methods for identifying compositions that selectively inhibitor ATP production for use in the invention.

Anti-cancer composition and method utilizing 3-bp and liposomal reduced glutathione The invention proposes a method of treatment of cancers exhibiting a CD163 characteristic by a liposomally formulated reduced glutathione. The invention proposes a method of treatment of cancer of a combination of liposomally formulated reduced glutathione to cooperate with an anti-cancer agent 3-bromopyruvate and its analogs Bromopynivic acid and 3-BrOP (3-bromo-2-oxopropionate-l -propyl ester) (collectively “3BP” or “3-BP”) to ameliorate the 3BP side effects and enhance its cancer-killing capacity and enhance the detoxification of the body of dead cancer cell debris.

Compositions and methods for the treatment of cancer The present invention discloses anti-cancer compositions, and associated methods, including an anti-cancer composition comprising: a cellular energy inhibitor having the structure according to formula I wherein X is selected from the group consisting of: a nitro, an imidazole, a halide, sulfonate, a carboxylate, an alkoxide, and amine oxide; and R is selected from the group consisting of: OR′, N(R″)2, C(O)R′″, C1-C6 alkyl, C6-C12 aryl, C1-C6 heteroalkyl, a C6-C12 heteroaryl, H, and an alkali metal; where R′ represents H, alkali metal, C1-C6 alkyl, C6-C12 aryl or C(O)R′″, R″ represents H, C1-C6 alkyl, or C6-C12 aryl, and R′″ represents H, C1-C20 alkyl or C6-C12 aryl. The anti-cancer composition can additionally comprise at least one sugar, which stabilizes the cellular energy inhibitor by substantially preventing the inhibitor from hydrolyzing. Also, the anti-cancer composition can comprise a hexokinase inhibitor. Further, the anti-cancer composition can comprise a biological buffer that is present in an amount sufficient to at least partially deacidify the cellular energy inhibitor and neutralize metabolic by-products of the cellular energy inhibitor.

A composition and method for the efficacious and safe administration of halopyruvate for the treatment of cancer

Methods and compositions for administration of 3-halopyruvate and related compounds for the treatment of cancer The present disclosure relates to the discovery that compounds of the invention, particularly 3-bromopyruvate and related compounds, can be safely administered at concentrations effective for the treatment of cancer when formulated with an acidity of greater than or equal to pH of 2 and less than or equal to a pH of 6. Disclosed herein are novel and improved methods and compositions for the treatment ofcancer using 3-halopyruvate and related compounds.

Methods of treatment using 3-bromopyruvate and other selective inhibitors of atp production

Methods of treating tumors having elevated mct1 expression In some aspects, compositions and methods useful for classifying tumor cells, tumor cell lines, or tumors according to predicted sensitivity to 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) are provided. In some aspects, methods of identifying subjects with cancer who are candidates for treatment with 3-BrPA are provided. In some aspects, compositions useful for subjects with cancers that express increased levels of MCT1 are provided. In some aspects, methods of treating subjects with cancers that express increased levels of MCT1 are provided. In some aspects, methods of identifying anti-tumor agents the efficacy of which is at least in part dependent on transporter-mediated uptake are provided.

Method of treating cancer with combinations of histone deacetylase inhibitors (hdac1) substances A method for treating cancer is described using combination therapies comprising the use of hyperbaric oxygen with histone deacetylase inhibitors, with and without glycolytic therapies. The patient is subjected to a hyperbaric environment of substantially pure oxygen. A predetermined dose of one or more HDACI substances is administered to the patient. In addition, glycolitic inhibitors may also be administered. Dosages, pressures, and durations are selected as described herein to have a therapeutic effect on the patient.

Propyl 3-bromo-2-oxopropionate and derivatives as novel anticancer agents The present invention is directed to compositions that inhibit glycolysis, perferentially in cancer. Specifically, the anticancer compositions comprise 3-halo-2-oxopropionate and its derivatives, such as ester derivatives. However, in specific embodiments, the anticancer composition is sodium 3-halo-2-oxopropionate, such as sodium 3-bromo-2-oxopropionate and a stabilizing agent, such as carbonic acid. In particular embodiments, the compositions of the present invention further comprise a metabolic intermediate for normal cells to utilize in a pathway for an alternate energy source, thereby providing protection to normal cells. In other embodiments, the 3-halo-2-oxopropionate or its ester derivative is used in combination with an additional cancer therapy, such as radiation and/or a drug.

Methods of treating tumors having elevated mct1 expression  In some aspects, compositions and methods useful for classifying tumor cells, tumor cell lines, or tumors according to predicted sensitivity to 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) are provided. In some aspects, methods of identifying subjects with cancer who are candidates for treatment with 3-BrPA are provided. In some aspects, compositions useful for subjects with cancers that express increased levels of MCT1 are provided. In some aspects, methods of treating subjects with cancers that express increased levels of MCT1 are provided. In some aspects, methods of identifying anti-tumor agents the efficacy of which is at least in part dependent on transporter-mediated uptake are provided.

Characterization of acetate transport in colorectal cancer cells and potential therapeutic implications. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27661124

Acetate, together with other short chain fatty acids has been implicated in colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention/therapy. Acetate was shown to induce apoptosis in CRC cells. The precise mechanism underlying acetate transport across CRC cells membrane, that may be implicated in its selectivity towards CRC cells, is not fully understood and was addressed here. We also assessed the effect of acetate in CRC glycolytic metabolism and explored its use in combination with the glycolytic inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate (3BP). We provide evidence that acetate enters CRC cells by the secondary active transporters MCT1 and/or MCT2 and SMCT1 as well as by facilitated diffusion via aquaporins. CRC cell exposure to acetate upregulates the expression of MCT1, MCT4 and CD147, while promoting MCT1 plasma membrane localization. We also observed that acetate increases CRC cell glycolytic phenotype and that acetate-induced apoptosis and anti-proliferative effect was potentiated by 3BP. Our data suggest that acetate selectivity towards CRC cells might be explained by the fact that aquaporins and MCTs are found overexpressed in CRC clinical cases. Our work highlights the importance that acetate transport regulation has in the use of drugs such as 3BP as a new therapeutic strategy for CRC.

Recent (2016) update on 3BP patent: Methods and compositions for administration of 3-halopyruvate and related compounds for the treatment of cancer https://www.google.com/patents/US9492417 indicating combination with Sodium Bicarbonate as a buffer as suitable to balance 3BP acidity and increase the daily dose.


This site is not designed to and does not provide medical advice, professional diagnosis, opinion, treatment or services to you or to any other individual. Through this site and linkages to other sites, I provide general information for educational purposes only. The information provided in this site, or through linkages to other sites, is not a substitute for medical or professional care, and you should not use the information in place of a visit, call consultation or the advice of your physician or other healthcare provider. I am not liable or responsible for any advice, course of treatment, diagnosis or any other information, services or product you obtain through this site. This is just my own personal opinion regarding what we have learned on this road.

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184 Comments on "3 Bromopyruvate"

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Wow that was strange. I just wrote an incredibly long comment but after I clicked submit
my comment didn’t appear. Grrrr… well I’m not writing
all that over again. Regardless, just wanted to say fantastic


In regards to your comment about the “alkaline substances not to be used in 3BP treatment” ie; Nabic. Would it be better to not use the Sodium Bicarb to buffer when administering the IV?


Hi Daniel- I want to thank you for taking the time to accumulate and interpret information regarding 3-BP and related therapies. It all sits there frustrating the heck out all of us scratching for a cure in this lifetime.

Your Donation/PayPal link results in a non-English page. My first suggestion would be to offer a second link to an English page. I’ll post more when I get some time (and donate when I get a translation!)

Thanks again!


I was able to donate by going to my own English Paypal and putting in Daniel’s email and marking it “gift.” At least, I hope it worked. I will go check!


I’m currently trying to obtain 3-BP, first through a U.S. supplier (97%, min. order 10g @ $10/g) and as a backup, a Chinese supplier (97%, min. order 1000g @ $.65 to $1/g). I would like to see if anyone wants to purchase with me as 1kg will go a long way. If I can find 10 people looking to stock 100g of 3-BP (while they research what they’ll do with it) let’s find a way to get in touch.

Daniel, your thoughts regarding U.S. vs. Chinese suppliers would be appreciated. I think the stuff is so cheap it would be more expensive to try to fake it. They advertise assays from 90% to 98%.

Still trying to translate/donate 🙂



I just realized my post violated a wink and a nod rule. You don’t have to post the above. If you want to comment on quality from domestic vs. other 3-BP sources it would be helpful. I can discuss the group purchase elsewhere. -Thanks, Fred


Just want to thank you, Daniel, for all your kindness, compassion and generosity in pulling this together.


Question: Last week, my husband had a PICC line inserted. We were given two official “lectures” on what could be put through it, i.e. nothing that could jam or affect the tubing. I assume all PICC/IV tubing is the same. On Friday, our naturopath decided to run through the usual 2mg/kg dose of 3BP in a 500 bottle and intentionally left out the buffer. I wasn’t too amused by this unrequested change but now I see it would fit in OK with the unbuffered mix mentioned in this post. However, could unbuffered 3BP affect the PICC line over time? Has anyone any knowledge or experience of this? I doubt it, given that 3BP is relatively new to this group.

Fred, I don’t thing I know you from the forum, and I wish you and your wife the very best.


Oh definitely no DMSO Daniel 🙂


Hello everybody

my mother is now on chemotherapy + DCA + supplements and natural protocols

but i really want to try a better treatments like 3-BP

i heard about GcMAF and it’s powerful anti-cancer effect

they say that there is about 350 doctors and clinics in Europe are using it , and it is possible to cure cancer in about 80% of people for about 1 year+ treatment

the drug name is GOleic , and it’s not very expensive like other cancer drugs

i really hope to put my mother in a complete remission

my question is : in your opinion, what is the best options ? 3-BP ? salinomycin ? other strong drug that i don’t know about ?

about GcMAF , anyone tried it ?

thanks alot …


Holly shit, (excuse me here).

GOleic costs 900 Euro here for 2.2ml

Having said that, dear Emad, i admire all you do for your mother and i wish you both all the best.
I would be very interested to know how she is feeling now, what you think is working from the things you tried, general information.
I hope that with Daniel’s help and everyone else here maybe we can all succeed trough collaboration.
For my mom the only things that seem to have worked are as follows.

Aspirin, CBD Oil, Ginger Tea, Coffee Enemas, Vegan Diet, Exercise

Looking forward to hear from you.


I heard about GcMAF and it’s powerful anti-cancer effect

they say that there is about 350 doctors and clinics in Europe are using it , and it can cure about 80% of people for about 1 year treatment

the drug name is GOleic , and it’s not very expensive like other cancer drugs , do you have any information about it ?


Im from india, my father got 3 bromopyruvate through TACE..in liver..activity dropped by 60%. But the activity in portal vein has not dropped. We are planning to have 3 Brp oral, can you let me know about sellers.


Do you know how the other patients treated with 3-BP have fared? Might the doctor have given you any
information about the effectiveness of 3-BP? Are other clinic in India treating with 3-BP?


– It seems other patients are comfortably now.
From doctor know about one patient who had oral cancer had complete cure in single dose
Personally know about another liver cancer patient, SUV , activity in liver was significantly decreased in single dosage.

– There are no other facilities in india which im aware of.


This is amazing!!
Thank you for your reply.

Were you quite pleased with the effectiveness of 3-BP for your father’s treatment?
Have some of the other patients you might be aware of used IV 3-BP?

There has been a large amount of interest on our thread concerning ccRCC.
Apparently ccRCC can have very few mitochondria. This should make 3-BP
especially effective in such patients. Is ccRCC common in India? Might you know of
any ccRCC patients treated with 3-BP.

There are many cancer patients interested in your responses.
Thank you again!


Was surprised on seeing results with 3bp for my father, I’ve not seen any other medicine which showed as effective as 3bp.
In india there are many ayurvedic, tibetian(we tried this from Dr Yeshi), homeopathy medicines used by many cancer patients(mostly in advanced stage), but not seen any particular therapy which could show results on PET. They talk about comfort of patient before and after and evidence of cure are not documented. Many other crude medicines like Simarouba, cannabis oil were tried by many, none documented as evidence for cure.

For ccRCC, IMO if 3bp can reach via TACE, it can show results immediately. Not sure though, about sensitiveness of area where tumour resides, toxivity of 3bp can lead to other issues.


My father was suffering from stage 4 pancreatic cancer metastasis to liver and lungs. His age is 65 and he is normally active. He was given 3 cycles of chemo (gemicitabine+nab-paclitaxel). But his tumor has grown bigger and so they stopped the chemo and now they have started Oxiplatin and capecitabine. And also we were told that this useless and will not show any improvement so next is palliative care. I gone thru this 3BP in cancercompass and had an idea to enquire about this. Please let me know any of your suggestions and comments


TACE 3-BP seems to be quite effective against liver cancer.
In the TACE procedure a massive dose of 3-BP is delivered directly into the liver.

This would be expected to have a substantial anti-cancer effect which has been demonstrated in several



Thought I’d bring this here, Daniel€¦

In the course of preparing IV-C solutions I’ve been using .2 micron syringe filters going into the 500ml bag. While sodium ascorbate solutions are bactericidal other solutions aren’t so, to be safe, I’ve been looking at placing the filter after the bag in the IV line. A quick search of McGuff finds .2 micron filtered IV sets at around $2.50 ea. The lowest cost unfiltered IV sets are $1.45 ea. The difference is $1.05. I can’t find sterile Whatman .22 micron syringe filters anywhere near $1.05 ea. so the filtered IV set seems like a win/win- cheap/safe.

I know my sterile techniques are better than some of my wife’s chemo nurses who throw tubing, connections and syringes around with reckless abandon but always trying to make it better. We’re starting to use her port-a-cath and keeping a sterile system there is even more important than at a peripheral catheter.


Hi Fred. Are you still interested in doing a group purchase of 3BP? Also, can you share any news on your wife?



Very much interested. Sigma seems hopeless and two other domestic suppliers are tightening their security. Daniel has two Chinese suppliers he trusts and I know of at least two people, already purchasing from U.S. suppliers that might be able to send to people like you and me (nothing illegal there).

A little busy with grandkids this weekend but we can toss this around later this week. I’ve been frustrated so far trying to obtain 3BP for my wife.



Thanks for the update. Please keep me posted on any opportunities for a group buy in the U.S. I just ordered 5g for a high price from sciencelab.com. At least they seem to be willing to sell to individuals.


Mark- I haven’t had time to really look at this but it appears as if your current source is competitive at 25g and above with the domestic sources I’ve seen.


For those intending to treat at home please pay attention to the quality of the 3BP API (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient or Drug Substance as it is called in the US) particularly if you intend to use it intravenously or inhaled using a nebulizer. Check the Certificate of Analysis for that batch if it has been tested for Bacterial Endotoxins (LAL test). Endotoxinemia is a life-threatening state with fever, inflammation, shock, complement activation, strong immune response with depleted coagulation factors causing hemorrhaging.
Remember that US/EU pharmacopoeial grades don€™t necessarily mean low-endotoxin grades or even endotoxin-controlled grades. So it may be wise to specify a low-endotoxin or parenteral grade of 3BP when ordering.
See article in Pharma News entitled How Do You Set Endotoxin Specs on API?
If used in topical applications or rectally as suppositories, the highest parenteral grade is not needed and a compendial grade would be acceptable.

Albert Leung

Dear Daniel,

I am living in Hong Kong and am very much interested in 3BP. Would you please let me have the information about your source of supply. Many thanks for your help.

Best Regards,
Albert Leung


My 2 cents:
1. 3BP is Br-CH2-CO-COOH with pKa 1.84. In the presence of hydroxide ion (OH-), the bromine leaves even before the hydrogen of the COOH leaves in an Sn2 reaction. In other words, as soon as you put 3BP in water, Bromine leaves, leaving pyruvic acid behind. This defeats the purpose of taking 3BP, because in order to be selectively taken up by MCT1 and kills the metabolic pathways as a non-specific alkylating agent, you would want bromine sticking together with the pyruvate, not as a freely liberated bromine. The latter would not be preferentially taken up by MCT1-overexpressing cancer cells. As a molecular akylating agent, it won’t be much different than Platinum molecule in cisplatin or carboplatin. Bottom line: you must use an adequate buffering agent to keep 3BP to what it is while it is being injected.
2. Buffering agents without large quantities of sugar molecules won’t do much as the buffer would be diluted quickly once injected in the body. With sugars around it, the hydrogen molecules and the ring structure provides some level of insulation, buying a bit more time before rapid degradation of 3BP sets in. It’s not much of a protection, but every second counts.
3. Perhaps stating the obvious, but, you must have a central IV port line. Any peripheral IV will do a lot of damage to the vessels, as the solution is caustic.
4. I strongly recommend using it under physician’s supervision, unless you are using it at low dose as a maintenance. Tumor lysis syndrome is of known concern, as 3BP kills very rapidly. This is especially true for patients with large tumor burden. Also, blood ammonia toxicity is something you would want a doctor to watch out for.
5. I’ve seen some very high doses in the post. Just for you to know, the published LD50 (lethal dose) for 3BP in mouse is 72 mg/kg of body weight.


Tom, could loading 3BP into minicells provide some protection against Br replacement and give more time for anti-cancer activity?



It appears Dr. Young Ko is starting to make a move:


“Welcome to Dr. Young Ko’s official 3BP (3-Bromopyruvate) website.
Your source of information for 3BP.

Click here to sign up for our newsletter to stay informed about upcoming scientific articles, clinical trials and clinics outside the USA which may be offering 3BP treatment in the future.

Please note: 3BP has not yet been approved by the FDA, but will soon be undergoing clinical trials. We recommend to not get 3BP treatments by any non-certified facility which is offering 3BP treatments. The use of 3BP and its current indications is patented by Dr. Ko. Any unauthorized use may evoke patent infringement.”


Actually, no company will sue you until the time they want to start selling it, themselves(FDA approval).

About salty version of DCA which is have lots online sellers, probably it have current patent (salt version), but I am not sure about example I mentioned


Cancel the above info. I immediately received an email from Sanjevani Integrative Medicine Health & Lifestyle Center. Another cancer predator. I was hoping…


Can 3bp work for bile duct cancer? The actual source, or tumor, has not been found yet. My friend is finishing his last chemo treatment today and is heading to CTCA in Illinois for a second opinion. Should we look into a clinic offering this kind of treatment? It sounds more promising than anything he’s been told to this point.

Rajiv Bedi

Dear Venu
kindly let me know the hospital in Bangalore and its contact no for treatment of ovarian cancer matastasis in liver and abdomen.

Thanks and regards

Rajiv Bedi


Dear Daniel,
I am an advanced prostate cancer sufferer and would value your opinion on the efficacy of rectal administration of a 10 ml solution of 140 mg of 3BP plus 70 mg of sodium bicarbonate per day at pH 3 to 4. I am 70 kg in weight.
Regards, ernemef.


Hi Venu
Can you please share the doctor’s details who is helping you with 3BP in Bangalore?
Also, how is your dad faring now? Please update


Great blog Daniel.

One question I have is the concern of having chlorine (sodium hypochlorite Na+ ClO-) in the water for oral treatments. It says that it might replace the bromine in the 3BP. I take it then that normal chloride (Cl-), as found in our stomach (our stomach acids are mostly hydrochloric acid – HC) will not affect it? I say this because for the IV treatment it is also suggested to put the 3BP in a NaCl solution.


Hi Daniel, I am Chitrita. I live in the US with my husband in upstate South Carolina. My father is in India and has been diagnosed with state 4 pancreatic cancer with lesions seen in liver and spleen. How can I arrange for him to get 3bp treatment, please help, any comment would be greatly appreciated. Can I contact you by email to get some personalized advice?


Hi Daniel, Thank you very much for your prompt reply. I wanted to send you an email, but couldn’t find your email address on this page. I am sorry if this is naive of me, highly stressed right now. How do I send you an email?

Ted Cooper

Hi Daniel,
My wife has recently been diagnosed with multiple myeloma, cancer of the blood plasma. Is 3BP effective on this non lumps and bumps type cancer?



Hi Daniel,

I’m waiting on Quercetin and Salinomycin shipments so in between I want to try IV 3BP. I’ve done oral but that isn’t available right now. Reading comments I’m not sure about the effectiveness of buffered versus unbuffered IV. Both methods seem to be supported. I’m comfortable doing either. Do you have a recent bottom line opinion as to your preferred method?



Thanks Daniel. That’s a big help.


Daniel, your thoughts as to whether it is possible to use different administration methods concurrently. For example IV 100mg PLUS topical 100mg or 44mg nebulizer? Would it be getting close to toxicity, lysis…?


Waiting on a bulk Sal order for 3 weeks so trying to keep my VIP (Very Important Patient) walking, talking and eating until then 🙂 Thanks as always!


Hello Daniel –
My husband has stage 4 lung cancer.
Now he’s taking Opdivo for immunotherapy, do you know if 3-BP will interfere with Opdivo?
And which supplier you use to purchase 3-BP?


I would like to order it from Western suppliers, but I don’t know which one. I trust Western more than Chinese. Is there any way you can help me with information which supplier to use?


hi daniel

ok so there is no risk orally .and it s seems to be synergetic with citric acid.

that s interesting

thanks for the info


Hi Daniel,
For unbuffered IV administration you wrote “inject this 3BP solution into 500ml NaCl (saline) bottle/bag”
I don’t have access to saline just NaCl IV bag (9mg/ml), is it okay to use that? I also have 500ml with Ringer-Acetat solution.

Kind Regards


my dog has osteosarcoma (bone cancer), its a 6.5yo 95 lb golden retriever.
I want to give topically. Would you know the dosage and what else should I be aware of?


Hi everyone,
I got Bromo-Pyruvate crystal salt.
Is it the same as 3-Bromo-Pyruvate and can i use the same dosage recommended?


Thank you, I got the right one. My dog (osteosarcoma) got a port. So he will start 1mg/kg and increase to 2mg/kg in a few weeks.
The next question is how long should he be on it?


Hi Daniel,

I hope you’re well and continuing the fight.

Something has been bugging me about 3BP and I just put my finger on it.

As I recall, the original Dr. Ko 3BP study involved intra-arterial or direct injection to the various tumors. After the astounding initial kill, the mice were allowed to live out their lives and the cancer NEVER returned. My question is, with the massive tumors and probable extensive metastasis, what happened to all the remote sites? How did treatment of the primary tumor(s) stop all progression of metastatic disease? Was the study cancer incapable of metastasis? Or, was there a byproduct of the primary tumor kill that circulated and killed all metastatic disease?

Your thoughts?


If we gave some of our energy for searching 3BP,i am sure we have seen some very good responces.
I have good feelings about 3BP and this post will reach 1000 messages before the others.
Because some of our friends are going to begin this treatment soon.(including me,when drugs arrive)


Hi Ergin

do you plan oral or iv route? what is your source? cheers W


Hi Daniel,
When we search for efficiency,it is perfect on mice(direct injection on tumor).Again an ACID.
We have to talk more on safety other than efficiency.You are totally right.After a little bit searching,it sounds dangerous.
Will it be the drug that will stay in our refrigerator for last chance use?
Where did you hear that clinic which uses 3BP?.I think they are using it secretly because i couldnt find it on internet.
Our previous clinic has 3BP but as far as i know they are not using it.
May be they put some in iv bag:) and dont talk about it.Who knows.
Kind Regards


You worked too much for 3BP in 2015-2016.Your work is amazing.Congragulations.
It is really complex.If we begin again to talk about it,it will take your lots of time.
Best is to read from begining to end.
Also below a perfect link.